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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 DOMAINS of life
bacteria

archaea

eukarya
6 KINGDOMS of life
bacteria
archaea
eukarya
animalia
plantae
fungi
# of species now named
1.4 million
similarities used to classify organisms
(3)
physical

physiological

behavioral
taxonomy
description, naming, classification of living organisms
taxon
rank if classification
collection of related organisms
Dear
King
Phillip
Crossed
Over
From
Greece
Saturday
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
phylogeny
evolutionary history
lineage
cladistic analysis
uses taxons as a branch of tree of life

current method of classification
synapomorphies
shared derived characteristics
prebiotic evolution
evolution of complex networks of organic compounds before the origin of life

mixed water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen
spontaneous generation
life is an innate property of organic matter
----disproved by Redi's "cover the meat" experiment
Miller/ Urey Experiment
• Mixed water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, ammonia, and hydrogen (primordial reducing atmosphere)
• Passed electric sparks through the mixture
• Resulted in amino acids
panspermia
theory
life was seeded on earth and other planets from outer space
---Anaxagoras
-----"directed"- aliens
chain of being
shows the fixed plan behind nature- man at top
species in a linear sequence
"ladder of nature"
Aristotle
argument from design
all of nature is designed in accord with a predetermined, benevolent and supernatural DIVINE PLAN
John Ray
--started Natural Theology philosophical school
--wrote Wisdom of God and Creation
--"everything is perfectly adapted to its way of life by the creator"
William Paley
--wrote Natural Theology- borrowed from Ray
tNatural Theology
---creator is a watchmaker
---species were specially created and never change

school of thought by John Ray
Book by William Paley
Linnaeus
--classified plants by reproductive structure
--swedish botanist
-- developed classification system through (class order genus species) and binomial nomenclature (latin name)
--believed species were fixed
System of Hybridization
new species must be hybrids of existing species

--ignored adaptation

--Linnaeus
Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de BUFFON
Histoire Naturelle-
--animals formed from an internal mold
--common ancestor
--ancestor was made by a creator

--------BIOGEOGRAPHY
--------ENVIRONMENT SHAPES NATURE OF ANIMALS
Theory of Degeneration
(Buffon)
--new species were a degenerate version of the created species

--species wandered and were effected by environment
Jean Baptiste de LAMARCK
--believed organisms were shaped by environment----could evolve!

--protoge of Buffon

--theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics

--coined "invertebrate" & "biology"

--evolution was predetermined & progressive

--nature follows a branch scheme
theory of Organic Progression
(Lamarck)
organisms change along fixed and parallel paths
Naturalists before Darwin viewed evolution as the unfolding of a predetermined supernatural plan
Biodiversity and adaptation reflected the divine plan behind nature
Robert Chambers
--Vestiges of Natural History of
Creation
--System of Linear Development
-------evolution was continuous and gradual

--man descended from lower animals
System of Linear Development
(Chambers)
--evolution was continuous and gradual
Charles Darwin
--rejected divine plan

--eliminated Argument from Design and Chain of Being

--believed adaptation resulted from ordinary laws of nature- w/o help of god
Robert Fitzroy
--Captain of the H.M.S. Beagle

--gentleman

--strict, religious, moody
H.M.S. Beagle
--boat going to South America in 1831

--Galapagos 1835
Origin of Species
Darwin (1859)
--contained theory of evolution by natural selection
Alred Russell Wallace
--almost published the same theory of evolution as Darwin
--Darwin edged him out
Thomas Malthus
Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)
---disagreed with utopian ideals

--liberal education

--minister

--population would increase geometrically but resources only arithmetically
struggle for existence
Malthus
--gap between the large population and the insufficient food supply

--influenced Darwins survival of the fittest
Survival of the fittest
Darwin
--there are winners and losers in nature
--------those better equipped to survive

--evolution related to variation
---------species=groups of individuals
natural selection
Darwin
--evolution is a selective process

-----selects the well adapted individuals who will produce more offspring
Thomas Huxley
--"darwin's bulldog"

--coined agnosticism

--saw evolution as 2 edged sword

--STARTED NATURE
------X-Club of Darwin supporters
Darwin's bulldog
Thomas Huxley
Gregor Mendel
--Discovered the mechanism of hereditary
--DARWIN SHOULDVE SEEN IT but didnt
--------published in an obscure journal

--became abbot

--DISCONTINUOUS variation
-- heredity was particulate
-----------came in pairs
Theodosius Dobzhansky
Genetics and the Origin of Species (1937)
---formulated the modern synthesis that fused field biology and population genetics

---speciation

---isolating mechanisms prevented interbreeding
biological species concept
species are populations of similar organisms that can interbreed with one another but are reproductively isolated from other populations by one of more isolating mechanisms
evolution
change in gene frequency over time (differential reproduction)