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51 Cards in this Set

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Evolution of complex networks of organic compounds before the origin of life,
Prebiotic Evolution
Life is a property of innate organic matter and will spontaneously arise from it, idea originated with Epicurius, made popular by Lucretius, revived by Joseph Needham in the 18th century- gravy=microorganisms
Spontaneous Generation
1953, modeled Earth’s primordial atmosphere in the lab, a. Mixed primordial ooze, passed spark through it, amino acids (building blocks of life) spontaneously appeared
Miller-Urey Experiment
the idea that life was seeded on Earth and other planets from outer space, idea originated with Greek philosopher Anaxagoras
Panspermia
Species can be arranged in a linear sequence, like links in a chain with man at the top
Chain of Being
All of nature is designed in accord with a predetermined, benevolent, and supernatural plan, Nature designed by Creator to instruct and guide mankind, Nature is like a giant jigsaw puzzle
Argument from Design
Started the school of Natural Theology, Wrote The Wisdom of God in Creation
John Ray
revived Natural Theology in the 19th century, Wrote Natural Theology, greatly influenced by Charles Darwin, viewed Creator as master gardener or cosmic watchmaker
William Paley
The idea that every living thing is perfectly adapted to its way of life, form and function fit together because they were designed by an all-knowing deity
Natural Theology
Invented Binomial Nomenclature, System of Hybridization, Wrote Systema Natura, Believed that species were distinct and fixed types and could not change
Carolus Linnaeus
The idea that new species must be hybrids of already existing species, ignored adaptation of species to changing conditions
System of Hybridization
Theorized that animals had formed from an internalized mold and new species were simply a degeneration of their ancestor, wrote Histoire Naturelle, a 44 volume encyclopedia, came up with theory of Degeneration
Georges Comte de Buffon
the idea that new species were simply a degenerate version of an already existing species, ancestral types created, then the species wandered to different places, invisible organic particles caused change
Theory of Degeneration
Best known for his theory of the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics, Believed that organisms were shaped by their environment and could evolve, Buffon's protege
Jeane Baptiste de Lamarck
Once generated, organisms changed along fixed and parallel paths, proposed by Jeane Baptiste de Lamarcke
Theory of Organic Progression
caused a scandal because his theory proposed that man was descended from lower creatures, clung to Argument from Design, thought that evolution was gradual and continuous, wrote Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation
Robert Chambers
A theory heavily influenced by Lamarck that claimed that man was descended from lower creatures, Proposed by Robert Chambers
System of Linear Development
Wrote the Origin of Species, came up with modern day view of evolution, most important thinker in history of natural evolution
Charles Darwin
Captain of the H.M.S. Beagle Darwin first set sail upon
Robert Fitzroy
Ship Darwin sailed on during his exploration of South America leading him to his theory of evolution
H.M.S. Beagle
Book written by Charles Darwin that outlines his theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
Origin of Species
A naturalist who was about to publish a theory outlining the exact same principles as Darwin’s at the same time, even with the same name, but Darwin beat him to it
Alfred Russell Wallace
Wrote the Essay on the Principle of Population, heavily influenced Darwin’s thinking, thought that nature showed that progress is only possible with enormous suffering and sacrifice of life
Thomas Malthus
Idea proposed by Thomas Malthus that in nature population would increase geometrically but resources would increase arithmetically
Struggle for Existence
term coined by Herbert Spencer that applied Malthus’ concept of Struggle for Existence and said the winners of a struggle would be those better equipped to survive
Survival of the Fittest
A selective process of evolution, what Darwin described as welll adapted individuals having more offspring than others and passing on their variation to the next generation
Natural Selection
Took up Darwin’s research when he died, founded the X Club (Secret Club of Darwin supporters), coined the term agnosticism, started the journal Nature
Thomas Huxley
Nickname given to Thomas Huxley after he took up Darwin’s work
Darwin's Bulldog
Experimented with garden peas, discovered the mechanism of heredity,
Gregor Mendel
Wrote Genetics and the Origin of Species, Made biologists realize the importance of how genes pass through natural populations
Theodosius Dobzhansky
Species being isolated by parent population through geographic boundaries, over generations of interbreeding can no longer mate with parent population
Geographic Isolation
The idea that heredity is like mixing paint, and that an offspring will express either the exact traits of one of the parents or a mix of the two
Blended Heredity
Tiny particles within the body that Darwin believed carried the information of heredity. These particles floated in the body and carried the information to make each body part, and during sex they went to the reproductive organs to produce Blended Heredity
Gemmules
Different versions of the same genes
Allele
The allele that masks the effect of the weaker allele
Dominant Allele
Alleles that are masked by the effects of a stronger allele
Recessive Allele
Having two alleles of different type
Heterozygous
Having two alleles of the same type
Homozygous
Changes in genetic information
Mutation
Formation of new species
Speciation
Species are populations of similar organisms that can interbreed with one another, but are reproductively isolated from other such populations by one or more isolating mechanisms
Biological Species Concept
Chromosomes that contain the same genes at the same loci
Homologous Chromosomes
a complete strand of DNA, a sequence of genes, two of them in a chromosome, fastened in the center
chromatid
Sequence of three nucleotides
Codon
Law stating that the inheritance pattern of one trait will not affect the inheritance pattern of another
Independent Assortment
When a genetic pool develops variation in a population and two or more phenotypes occur
Genetic Polymorphism
The theory that if large populations mate randomly, the proportion of two alleles will never change
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
When you are with one partner, one after another
serial monogamy
Many partners
Polygamy
One male, many females
polygyny
One female, many males
polyandry