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61 Cards in this Set

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The Republican Revolution 1911 (China)
Sun Yat Sen- devised ideology, organized people to overthrow Qing Dynasty
Wanted republican form of government. (George Washington of Modern China)
3 great overriding principals: democracy (republicanism), nationalism, people's welfare.
Chosen as leader in 1912
Yuan Shikai- one of the most powerful leaders in Qing dynasty became dominant force, became ruler, was not republican.
Led to found Guomindang (KMT)- National People's Party (won a majority of seats in parliament.. Chang Kai Shek led party for 50 years)
New Culture Movement of 1910s and 20s (China)
Student demonstrations, students returning from abroad advocated different political/social theories- Westernization of China, socialism. Led to May 4th movement.
May Fourth Movement 1919 (China)
Massive student demonstrations against Beijing government in response to the secret agreement with Japan to acknowledge their claim to Shandong province. Characterized by political fervor student activism, and intellectual currents spawned "national awakening"-- rekindled cause of Republican revolution, resisting ruling by warlords outside Japanese influence
Communist Revolution, 1949
Communist (CCP led by Mao Ze Dong) win civil war against nationalists, drove nationalists to Taiwan. Founding of the people's republic of China. One part state/dictatorship. Country faced reconstruction and poverty, political legitimacy and external world, West is still a problem (soviets)
The Long March 1948 (China)
Under threat of the nationalists, communists undertook a long march to avoid the takeover of nationalists, gained a large following of peasants and commoners
The Great Leap Forward and the Great Famine 1958-1961(China)
Attempt to equalize wealth, collectivization. Communes were supposed to produce and grow thigns for themselves- overturn of traditional family structure. Floods and natural disasters, momentum of bad elements lead to great famine. More than just economic failure. Favored steel production over agriculture--mass production of poorly made products. Goal was to surpass the U.S. as industrial power. Both national and fragmentary aspect- uniting under Chinese nationalism but dividing country into communes
The Cultural Revolution, 1966-1976
Most vigorous stage, happened in first couple years. Mao Ze Dong told youth (Red Guards) to aggressively attack those in opposition to socialism/communism (older generations, teachers, elders.) This emphasized restoring ideological purity, revolutionary fervor back to the party/government and intensify the class struggles that are requisite in communist theories in order to fix the capitalist problem.
Resumptions of relations with US 1972 (China)
Nixon visits. US wanted to establish warmer relations with China, get a one up on the soviet union
Death of Mao 1976 (China)
Cop officials who had opposed Mao emerged, one of them purged the system. Arrest of Gang of Four (Communist Party leaders)
Deng Xiaoping assumes power 1978 (China)
Assumes power, had been in leadership circle for a while. Had no interest in becoming Mao or personality cult. Practical reformer, focused on economy. Four modernizations: agriculture, industry, defense, science and technology. Economic liberalization- shift from socialist planning to capitalism, free markets. Brought in technical youth. Major turning point- economic focus, restrictions on peasants loosened, emphasis on class struggle shifted
Tiananmen Square demonstrations 1989 (China)
Student uprisings started during memorial for former CPC General Secretary Hu Yaobang (party official known for tolerating dissent) are squashed by government military with tanks (200 +) deaths). Goals: human rights, democracy. Large Western media coverage. Party chairman Zha Ziyang tried to listen and address students
Qing Dynasty 1966-1911 (China)
Last Chinese dynasty, was on the throne when China went through turbulent/dramatic Western influence. Rulers were Manchu's
Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864 (China)
Rebels attempted social reforms and replacement of confuscianism, buddhism with a form of christianity... Mao claimed they were "early revolutionaries against feudal system."
Boxer Rebellion 1898-1901 (China)
Rebels opposing Western imperialism and Christianity, took place in response to European "spheres of influence" in China, grievances ranging from opium traders, political invasion, economic manipulation and missionary evangelism.
Hundred Flowers Campaign 1956-1957 (China)
Encouraged participation of intellectuals in the new regime
Launched to liberalize political climate
Warlord Period 1911-1937 (China)
Opposite of Unity. Zhang Zhongzang- "The Dog Meat General"
Tokugawa (Edo) period 1600-1868 (Japan)
Brought years of stability to Japan. Feudal period in Japan. Disfragmented rule was . Daimyo- ruled most of the country from their cast, hereditary land holdings.
Meiji restoration and Era 1868-1912 (Japan)
Meiji rulers embraced Western economic ideas- free enterprise, capitalism, yen, banking, tax laws
State making- efforts to construct strong and powerful central government.
Nation-making- Has to do with mental morale of the country. people believing and acting on the beliefs of the land
Also characterized by Meiji imperialism
Taisho 1912-1926 (Japan)
2 party political system. first commoner serves as prime minister.
Victory over Russia in war 1905 (Japan)
Wanted to keep Russia out of Manchuria. War broke out. Japan won. Japanese nationalism intensified.
Annexation of Korea 1910 (Japan)
Japan established sphere of influence in Korea, marked a period of Japanese territorial expansion after the Russo-Japanese War.
Takeover of Manchuria 1931 (Japan)
Set in action by the Manchurian incident, in which Japanese conspirators blew up a few miles of South Manchurian railway, and blamed it on Chinese saboteurs. Japan then attacked Shanghai on the pretext of Chinese resistance in Manchuria. Japan captured many major cities. Ended official Chinese involvement in the area.
War with China and US 1937-1945 (Japan)
Second Sino-Japanese War after Japanese and Chinese troops clashed at Marco Polo bridge near Beijing, relations with US and Britain deteriorate. Japan joins Germany and Italy as a military agreement to redivide the world. Tojo Hideki decided to attack US at Pearl Harbor as act of self-preservation
Atomic Bombing and Surrender 1945 (Japan)
Bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Emperor watned to bring peace but allies required unconditional surrender. Gave up Taiwan and Korea and agreed to demilitarize. Occupation of Japan by allied forced.
Occupation 1945-1952 (Japan)
Demilitarization and democratization. War industries were used for civilian use. Economic reforms- trade unions and zaibatsu. New constitution.
Loss of Sovereignty to Japanese colonial rule 1910 (Korea)
Beginning of Japanese colonial rule, done through intimidation and coersion.
March First Independence uprising 1919 (Korea)
March First Movement; celebrated today in both North and South Korea. First resistance to Japan; mass uprising in Korea against colonial rule.
"Cultural Rule" period 1920s and 1930s (Korea)
After March 1st Movement less restriction, rise of many Korean groups and organizations. Newspapers published Korean novels. National identity. Modernism was main topic of novels. New woman was no longer passive, domestic. New woman became public phenomenon throughout East Asia. New education for girls. Female factory workers.
Wartime mobilization 1938-1945 (Korea)
Korean victimization at hands of Japanese. Korean sex slaves - "comfort women." Had to undergo exercises in favor of Japanese emperor. Forced assimilation between Japan and Korea.
Korean War 1950-1953 (Korea)
The end of WWII brought about the 38th parallel- US occupying southern part of Korea and Soviet troops occupying the northern part. Cross boarder skirmishes escalated into open warfare when NK forces invaded S. Korea. Chinese entered on the side of North Korea and turned the tide of the war. War ceased with armistice.
Kwangju uprising 1980 (Korea)
Citizens rose up against military dictatorship and took control of the city. Ultimately crushed by S. Korean army.
Democratization 1987 (Korea)
Adoption of a new constitution. First election of a president by direct popular vote in 26 years. Economic situation favored South Korea's difficult but inevitable transition to democracy.
Military Rule and Wartime 1931-1945 (Japan)
A decade of fear in Japan, characterized by resurgence of right-wing patriotism, weakening of democratic forces, domestic terrorist violence (assassination attempt on emperor) and military aggression abroad
Political parties were ordered to dissolve. Axis alliance with Germany and Italy, agreement to re-divide the world, directed primary against the United States.
War of self-defense and self-preservation- attack of Pearl Harbor naval base
American Occupation 1945-1952 (Japan)
US occupies Japan after their unconditional surrender at the end of WWII. Japan can't go to war in the future. Japan is under US military umbrella.
Post-War Democracy under Conservative Rule 1952- (Japan)
LDP (Liberal Democratic Party) brought political stability to post-war Japan. Japan became huge economic with companies such as Sony, Honda, Toyota. Americans were buying more from Japan than Japan was buying from US. Overall political and financial harmony.
Choson Dynasty 1392-1910 (Korea)
Era of confuscianism, Korean alphabet was developed. Suffered invasions by the Japanese and the Manchus. Japan forced a series of Western-style trade agreements on Korea leading to Japan's eventual annexation of the country.
Japanese Colonial Period 1910-1945 (Korea)
Done through intimidation and coercion. Blatant military orientation. Blunt attempt at assimilating Koreans into Japanese Empire. Japanese though Koreans could not take care of themselves and needed Japanese to help them develop. March 1st Movement was an example of Korean resistance to Japanese colonial rule and sparked more freedom for Koreans to develop organizations and print publications. Koreans were victimized at the time of war mobilization, women were sold into sex slavery- "comfort women." Forced assimilation of Korea and Japan as "one body."
Liberation Division
After war Japan was forced to give up Korea. The United States occupied S. Korea and Soviets occupied N. Korea; time of much confusion. Skirmishes on boarder escalated when N. Korea attempted to invade S. Korea sparking a war between the two. Ended in an armistice.
South and North Korea division 1953-present
S. Korea- prosperous nation. Developing democracy, having thrown off military rule in ealry 1990s and maintaining a representative civilian democratic gov.
N. Korea- Democratic People's Republic of Korea, has suffered great economic hardships in recent years, went through period of severe famine in mid-1990s. Gov is a single party state established along Leninist principles borrowed from the Soviet Union, under leadership of Kim Il Sung until his death and his son Kim Jong Il took over
North Korean Rule of Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il
1960s- N. Korean leader Kim Il Sung began advocating a policy of juche or "self reliance" partly to avoid becoming entangled in the growing conflict between China and the USSR. Generally pursued policy of economic self-sufficiency. His son took over after his death. Shows no noticeable sign of political collapse or even significant change despite years of profound economic hardship.
South Korean Authoritarianism and Military Dictatorship 1953-1987
Park Chung Hee era saw both extraordinary economic growth and deepening political dictatorship. After Park's death and a brief period of civilian rule, S. Korea was again brought under control of the military, this time under General Chun Doo Hwan. Protests against Chun's dictatorship grew throughout the 1980s.
South Korean Period of Democracy 1987-present
Chun stepped down in 1987 and was replaced by his close comrade-in-arms Roh Tae Woo who was elected in a close race. 1992- Kim Young Sam was elected S. Korea's first civilian president since 1961 military coup. Kim Dae Jung's presidency helped recover S. Korea's economy after a large financial crisis.
Sun Yat-Sen
China. Republican Revolution. Responsible for leading overthrow of Qing dynasty. (George Washington of modern China)
Chang Kai-Shek.
led Nationalist party (Guomindang) for 50 years after the death of Sun Yat-Sen. Eliminated alliance with Communist party. Went on Northern expedition expelling Warlords. Eventual war against Mao and CCP. Exhausted after Sino-Japanese War they were overwhelmed by People's LIberation Army. Guomindang party continued to operate in Taiwan.
Mao ZeDong
Considered one of the three great communist leaders along with Marx and Lenin. Chairman and a founder of CCP and head of state of People's Republic of China. Was of peasant origins.
Launched Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution.
Deng Xiaoping
Comes to power after Mao's death. Had been in leadership circle for a while. Had no interest in becoming Mao. Was a practical reformer, focusing on economy and absences of cultural revolution. Focused on agriculture, science and technology, ushered in age of economic liberalization- "capitalist socialism."
Ito Hirobumi
Primer Minister in Japan during the Diet. Compromiser, wanted to establish government party to control the House during his first term. Returned as prime minister in 1989, pushed for a government party but Yamagata refused, Ito resigned. Yamagata returned as Prime Minister.
Emperor Hirohito
Head of state under limitation of the Constitution of the Empire of Japan during Japan's militarization and involvement in WWII. During postwar period he became the symbol of the new state.
Park Chung Hee
Republic of Korea Army general and President of S. Korea from 1961-1979. Credited with industrialization of Republic of Korea through export-led growth. Assassinated in 1979
Kim Il Sung
Lead N. Korea from its founding until his death in 1994. Ruled nation with autocratic power. Promoted self-developed Juche (spirit of self-reliance, putting Korea first.) Succeeded by his son.
Nationalism
Ideological Influence:
Right-Wing Anti-Communist parties: Both In Japan and Korea. Nationalist party led by Chang Kai Shek in China, taken over by Communist Party. Nationalist and Communist parties were quickly shut down in Japan
Communism
Ideals: equal distribution of wealth and supplies
Activities of the communist parties: Long March (Mao), Hundred Flowers Campaign, Great Leap Forward. In Korea it was scattered, founding the "United Front"- Kim Il Sung
Specter of fear to justify mobilization and suppression: In China Mao's Cultural Revolution, purging China of those that showed opposition to Communist ideologies.
Militarism
Warlords and nationalists in pre-1949 China- Country was divided among military cliques
1930s and 1940s in Japan- Decade of fear in Japan, resurgence of right-wing patriotism, weakening of democratic forces, domestic terrorist violence, withdrew from league of nations, US grew increasingly hostile, prime minister assassinated, second sino-japanese war
1960s and 1970s in Korea- Coup de'tat. The National Assembly was dissolved and high-level civilian officials were replaced by military officers.
1990s sense of malaise and 1997 economic crisis (Korea)
IMF (international monetary fund) Crisis - Economic crisis, similar to what we experienced 11 years later, faults in structure of economy caused collapse, gave south korean gov. emergency loan. represented the long running malaise that had been developing in 1990s
Capitalism
Industrialization in early 20th Japan, then "miraculous" development in post-war period:
Meiji restoration brought about western economic ideas- taxation, banking, unified currency, later on there was agricultural land redistribution, reestablishment of trade unions, and severe proscriptions on the zaibatsu business conglomerates that had facilitated the industrialization of the Japanese war effort. Foreign trade allowed.
Unprecedented rapid economic growth in latter half of 20th century in Korea and China- As market mechanisms became an important part of the newly reformed planning system, products circulated more freely and the commodity market was rapidly improved. The government sought to rationalize prices, revamp the wage structure, and reform the financial and taxation systems. The policy of opening up to the outside world (the Chinese eschew the term open door, with its legacy of imperialist impositions) brought a significant expansion of economic, technological, and trade relations with other countries. South Korea's economy grew rapidly under Park. Park's policies, laid out in Five-Year Development Plans, encouraged private entrepreneurs. Businesses, including those so-called "chaebol", or family-based conglomerates, were given powerful incentives to export, including preferential treatment in obtaining low-interest bank loans, import privileges, permission to borrow from foreign sources, and tax benefits. Exports also were encouraged by direct subsidies; all taxes and restrictions on the import of intermediate goods that were to be used to produce export products were removed. As the existing industries--textiles, clothing, and electrical machinery, among others--had been stagnant owing to a lack of imported raw materials, these policies produced immediate results.
Personality Cults
Maoism: Highly influential version of communism, maybe more than Marx or Lenin. Elimination of Chinese family law. Mao portrait in tiananmen square.
Kim Il Sungism: Deemed the "Supreme Leader" or North Korea. Even after death his forever lives on in the hearts of the N. Korean people as the forever lasting ruler of N. Korea.
Japanese "emperor system": The role of the Emperor of Japan has historically alternated between a largely ceremonial and symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler.
Mixtures
"Capitalism socialism" in post-1978 China: Economic liberalization, opening up trade with other countries. the fundamental distinction between the Chinese and Western socialist market economy models lies less in the implementation of the mixed economic model but rather in the underlying authoritarian political philosophy, which eschews Western notions of democracy, individual rights, and the rule of law
Conservative, "developmental democracy" in postwar Japan: form the Liberal Democratic Party, or LDP, in November 1955. This party continuously held power from 1955 through 1993, when it was replaced by a new minority government. LDP leadership was drawn from the elite who had seen Japan through the defeat and occupation; it attracted former bureaucrats, local politicians, businessmen, journalists, other professionals, farmers, and university graduates.
Foreign Impact
Western Imperialism beginning in late 19th century: Foreign encroachment in China, Russian, French, Brits, Germans, Japanese, US carved up China. Britain/China and Opium War
Influx of Western models and ideas at turn of 20th century: Meiji Restoration in Japan took Western economic ideals
Japanese expansionism and imperialism: Russo-Japanese War, Sino-Japanese Wars, Korean protectorate
The Cold War- Korean War going on in the midst of Cold War
Wars and Conflict
Sino-Japanese- fought between qing dynasty in china and meiji in japan primarily over the control of korea
Russo-Japanese- Over Manchuria. Japan won. Increased Japanese nationalism. First east asian country to defeat western imperial power.
Second Sino-Japanese War- Occurred between Japan and China after alleged uplanned clash at Marco Polo Bridge
Civil Wars- China: between nationalists and communists, were united when fighting japan but afterward communists defeated nationalists who were exhausted from fighting, they went to taiwan. Korea: N. and S. Korea... skirmishes on boarder erupted into full scale korean war when N. Korea invaded. Fight between N. Korean Communists and S. Koreans.
Confucianism and Traditional Values
Centrality of family and filial piety: All about doing things for the honor of the family. Family is more important thing. Filial piety is respecting/serving/honoring parents and elders.
Overriding goals: harmony and stability, respect nature, great chain of being- "heaven (to order properly), country (to rule properly), family (to lead properly), self (to cultivate properly)"
Family roles and standing of females: Females were supposed to stay at home and care for the children, they were surbordinate to their spouses. Patriarchal, males were valued.
5 relationships:
1)between father and son: affection
2)between ruler and minister: righteousnes
3)husband and wife: distinction
4)elder and younger: order
5)friend and friend: faithfulness (trust)
Women and Gender in Korea
Colonial Period: the "new woman" and the "modern girl"... effects of urbanization and new educational opportunities
Post-liberation South Korea: Role of female factory workers in rapid economic growth
Gender Construction in South Korea in 1990s: Impact of economic growth and democratization, "adult's disease" and plight of the "salarymen", resistance to and subversion of tradition, as expressed in popular culture, assertion of female desires and sexuality, resistance to traditional constraints- the missy.