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42 Cards in this Set

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After breaking, where do they move along?
Faults
What happens to rocks when they are applied force?
They undergo stress.
When the _______ ________ are passed, the rocks break.
Elastic Limits
On one side of a fault, which ways can rocks move.
Up, down, or sideways
Why do faults occur?
Forces inside the Earth cause Earth's surface to move placing stress on or near the plate edge.
At a fault, what will rocks do?
Bend, compression, stretch, and possibly
vibrations produced by breaking rock
Earthquakes
During an earthquakem what do the rocks do?
Break, move along the fault, return to original position.
Where do rocks move during an earthquake?
Under, or along each other along fault lines
What are the types of force that act on rocks?
Tension, Compression, and shear
Caused by rock above the fault moving downward in relation to the rock below the fault. Caused by tension forces
Normal Faults
Compression forces squeeze rock above the fault up and over the rock below the fault
Reverse Fault
Created by shear forces. rocks on either side of the fault move past each other without much upward or downward motion
Strike-slip Fault
Waves generated by an earthqauke can move the ground forward and backward, up and downm and side to side.
Seismic Waves
an earthquake's point of energy release
Focus
Cause particles inrocks to move back and forth in the same direction that the wave is traveling
Primary Wave
cause particles in rock to move at right angles to the direction of wave travel
Secondary Wave
move rock particles in a backward, rolling motion and a sideways swaying motion
Surface Waves
the point on the Earth's surface directly above the earthquake focus is called
epicenter
How do scientists the epicenter?
they determine the different speeds of seismic waves
Which waves move the fastest?
Primary
Which waves come after the first waves and before the last?
Secondary Wave
Which waves are the slowest?
Surface Waves

They also reach the station last.
What measures seismic waves?
Seismograph
What does a seismograph consist of?
Rotating drum, and a pendulum with a pen
The paper record of a seismic event is called a
seismogram
What is the Earth's outermost layer?
Crust
Why don't large areas of Earth receive seismic waves?
the waves are bent or stopped by materials of different density
Earthquake kill many people and cause much _________
damage
scientists who study earthquakes
seismologists
measure of energy released by an earthquake
magnitude
How is magnitude determined?
Richter Scale
The Richter Scale has no_________ ________
Upper Limit
Why are most Earthquakes not felt by humans?
They have magnitudes to low.
What is the Mercalli Scale?
an intensity scale based on structural and geologic damage
shaking from an earthquake can make wet soil act like a liquid
Liquefaction
What are tsunamis?
Ocean waves are cause by earthquakes
What cause tsunamis?
a sudden movement of the ocean floor pushes against the water
How far can tsunamis travel?
thousands of kilometers in all directions
Earthquakes cannot be__________
predicted
Buildings can be built to withstand ___________
seismic vibrations
What is a mooring?
protect buildings from earthquakes. flexible. circular. made of alternating layers of rubber and steel