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### 42 Cards in this Set

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 After breaking, where do they move along? Faults What happens to rocks when they are applied force? They undergo stress. When the _______ ________ are passed, the rocks break. Elastic Limits On one side of a fault, which ways can rocks move. Up, down, or sideways Why do faults occur? Forces inside the Earth cause Earth's surface to move placing stress on or near the plate edge. At a fault, what will rocks do? Bend, compression, stretch, and possibly vibrations produced by breaking rock Earthquakes During an earthquakem what do the rocks do? Break, move along the fault, return to original position. Where do rocks move during an earthquake? Under, or along each other along fault lines What are the types of force that act on rocks? Tension, Compression, and shear Caused by rock above the fault moving downward in relation to the rock below the fault. Caused by tension forces Normal Faults Compression forces squeeze rock above the fault up and over the rock below the fault Reverse Fault Created by shear forces. rocks on either side of the fault move past each other without much upward or downward motion Strike-slip Fault Waves generated by an earthqauke can move the ground forward and backward, up and downm and side to side. Seismic Waves an earthquake's point of energy release Focus Cause particles inrocks to move back and forth in the same direction that the wave is traveling Primary Wave cause particles in rock to move at right angles to the direction of wave travel Secondary Wave move rock particles in a backward, rolling motion and a sideways swaying motion Surface Waves the point on the Earth's surface directly above the earthquake focus is called epicenter How do scientists the epicenter? they determine the different speeds of seismic waves Which waves move the fastest? Primary Which waves come after the first waves and before the last? Secondary Wave Which waves are the slowest? Surface Waves They also reach the station last. What measures seismic waves? Seismograph What does a seismograph consist of? Rotating drum, and a pendulum with a pen The paper record of a seismic event is called a seismogram What is the Earth's outermost layer? Crust Why don't large areas of Earth receive seismic waves? the waves are bent or stopped by materials of different density Earthquake kill many people and cause much _________ damage scientists who study earthquakes seismologists measure of energy released by an earthquake magnitude How is magnitude determined? Richter Scale The Richter Scale has no_________ ________ Upper Limit Why are most Earthquakes not felt by humans? They have magnitudes to low. What is the Mercalli Scale? an intensity scale based on structural and geologic damage shaking from an earthquake can make wet soil act like a liquid Liquefaction What are tsunamis? Ocean waves are cause by earthquakes What cause tsunamis? a sudden movement of the ocean floor pushes against the water How far can tsunamis travel? thousands of kilometers in all directions Earthquakes cannot be__________ predicted Buildings can be built to withstand ___________ seismic vibrations What is a mooring? protect buildings from earthquakes. flexible. circular. made of alternating layers of rubber and steel