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13 Cards in this Set

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aftershock
A ground ground tremor caused by the repositioning of rocks after an earthquake. They may occur for as long as two years after initial earthquake.
Benioff-Wadati zone
A region where the subduction of oceanic plated causes eathquakes, the foci of which are deeper the farther inland they are.
body waves
A type of seismic wave the transmits enerfy from an earthquakes focus through the Earth's interior in all directions.
dilatency
The expansion of a rock's volume caused by stress and deformation.
epicenter
The point on the Earth's surface that is located directly above the focus of an earthquake.
focus
The precise point within the Earth's crust or mantle where rocks begin to rupture or move in an earthquake.
foreshocks
A minor, barely detectable earthquake, generally preceding a full-scale earthquake with approximately the same focus.
liquefaction
The conversion of moderatly cohesive, unconsolidated sediment into a fluid, water-saturated mass.
Mercalli intensity scale
A scale designed to measure the the degree of intensity of earthquakes, based on human perceptions.
moment-magnitude scale
A recently developed alternative to the Richter scale used to measure more accurately the amount of energy released by large earthquakes. This scale involves measurement of an earthquake's seismic moment.
P waves (primary wave)
A body wave that causes the compression of rocks when its energy acts upon them. When the P wave moves past a rock, the rock expands beyond its original volume, only to be compressed again by the next P wave. The fastest of all seismic waves.
Richter scale
A logarithmic scale that measures the amount of energy released during an earthquake on the basis of the amplitude of the highest peak recorded on a seismogram.
S waves
A body wave that causes the rocks along which it passes to move up and down perpendicular to the direction of its own movement.