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216 Cards in this Set

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What is an Observation?
Examing Something by using our 5 senses.
What is an Inference?
A logical Conclusion based on our observations
What is Classification?
Grouping together objects based on similar characteristics.
What is Percent Error?
Something that tells you how accurate your measurements were?
What is Scientific Notation?
A process used to shorten the way of writing a number.
If the density of an object is more than 1 it will _______ in water.
Sink
If the density of an object is less than 1 it will _________ in water.
Float
The equation for density is ________.
M/V
When you heat an object up the object gets ________ dense.
Less
When you cool an object it gets _________ dense.
More
If you take an object and you cut it into 10 pieces all of those would have the __________ density
Same
What phase are most objects accept water in there most dense state?
Solid
As temperature increases, volume _______.
Increases
As volume increases, density ___________.
Decreases
As pressure increases, density ___________
Increases
As volume decreases, density ___________
Increases
What is an Interface?
A boundary where change takes place
Frame of reference?
Something to compare a change to
What is the best way of knowing that the earth is round?
Pictures
Polaris is also known as the...
North Star
What is the true shape of the Earth?
Oblate Spheroid
What can be used to find Polaris?
The pointer Stars (2 stars that are located at the end of the big dipper)
What is the Lithosphere?
This is teh layer of the earththat is responsible for rocky part of the earth.
What is the Hydrosphere?
The part of the earth that is made up of water?
What is the Atmosphere?
The section of the Earth that is composed of 4 layers of gas
What are the two main gases that make up the atmosphere?
Oxygen and Nitrogen.
What are the four layers of the atmosphere from the closest to the earth outward?
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, and Thermosphere.
What is Latitude?
Lines that are parallel to the equator and are North or South.
What is Longitude?
Lines that run parallel to the Prime Meridian and are East or West.
The angle of polaris is equal to your _________.
Latitude
As you go closer to the poles polaris gets ________ in the sky.
Higher
What are Star Trails
The apparent path of stars during an extended period of time.
What is an Astrolab.
An instrument that was used to measure the altitude or angle of stars.
The earth rotates on its axis once every _______ hours?
24
What is rotation?
The spinning of something on an axis.
What is a revolution?
Spinning around another object?
What are the seasons caused by?
The tilt of the earth and its revolution around the Sun
The earth revolves around the sun in _______ days.
365
Summer is caused when a hemisphere is tilted ________ from the sun.
Towards
Winter is caused when a hemisphere is tilted _______ from the sun.
Away
What is an Isoline?
A line that connects equal areas of measurements.
An Isotherm connnects equal areas of _________.
Temerpature
An Isobar connects equal areas of _________.
Pressure
Contour lines connect equal areas of _______.
Elevation
What are Timezones?
They are different times that are measured by a 15 degree intervel east or west of the Prime Meridian.
Timezones: 15 degrees West
1 hour Earlier
Timezones: 15 degrees East
1 Hour later
What is Astronomy?
The study of the universe, stars, and planets, and all other objects in space.
What is a Lightyear.
The distance light can travel in a year.
What is a Gallaxy?
Something that is made up of billions of stars, dust, and gas all held together by gravity.
Gallaxies are classified based on their _________.
Shape
The three different types of Gallaxies are ______, _______, and _________.
Spiral, Elliptical, and Irregular
What type of gallaxy do we live in?
Sprial gallaxy
The name of our gallaxy is the ________?
Milky Way
The center of our solar system is the _________?
Sun
The Sun prvides us with _______ and ________ that make our life on our planet possible.
Heat and Light
What is nuclear Fusion?
When the nuclei of 2 atoms come together and make 1 new nucleus and a new element.
Surrouding the sun are _______ planets?
9
The planets that are similar to earth are known as the _________ planets.
Terrestrial.
What are the four Terrestrial Planets?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, and mars.
The planets that are most similar to Jupiter are known as the __________ Planets.
Jovian
The Jovian planets are ________ in size.
Large
The four Jovian planets are...?
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
What is the one planet that is an exception and does not fit in this group even though it is in the same area?
Pluto
What is the current idea of how the universe formed?
The Big Bang
What is the Big Bang?
When all matter in teh Universe was concentrated into an incredibly dense "atom". The "atom" exploded with tremendous force and all matter and space began expanding at speeds nearly that of Light.
What is Infinite Expansion?
When the universe will continue to expand (Red Shift)
What is the Big Crunch?
When everything comes back together and gravoty reverses (Blue Shift)
What is occuring in our universe now? The Red or Blue Shift?
Red Shift
How did water get onto our planet?
Volcanoes, meteors, adn comets.
How did the earth get Oxygen?
Blue-Green algea formed 3.5 billion yearas ago and used C02 and were able to have photosynthesis creating Oxygen.
What is a Geocentric Model?
A model of us and we are stationary and all other celestial objects move around it at fixed distances.
Who was the person that suggested the Geocentric Model?
Ptolomy
What is a Heliocentric Model?
A model os us and the sun is stationary and all other celestial objects (including the Earth) move around it.
What is a Star?
A ball of very hot gases.
What do stars use as fuel?
Hydrogen
What is the life cycle of stars that are like our sun?
Stellar Nursery-->Red Giant-->Planetary Nebula-->White Dwarf-->Black Dwarf
What is the life cycle of stars that are 3 times that size of our sun?
Stellar Nursey-->Huge Stars-->Red Supergiant-->Supernovfe-->Black Hole
Who was the person that said the orbits of the planets around the SUn are ellipses, with the Sun a one of hte foci?
Kepler
What is Keplers 2nd law of motion?
An imaginary line joining a planet to the Sun will sweep over equal areas in equal period s of time.
What was Keplers 3rd law of planetary motion?
The amount of time it takes for a planet to revolve around the Sun is equal to that planet's year.
Who was teh person that discovered gravity?
Newton
What is gravity?
The force of attraction that a bigger object has on a smaller one.
How do we know the Earth Rotates?
Focault's Pendulum and the Coriolis Effect
What is the Coriolis effect?
Teh tendency of matter oving across Earth's surface to be defleccted from a straight line path caused by Earth's Rotaton.
Ex) THe circular patterns of occean currents, the global wind patterns, and the motion of the Foucault pendulum.
What is perihelion?
When the Earth is closest to the Sun.
What is Aphelion?
When the Earth is farthest away from the sun.
When does the Earth move faster and Aphelion or Perihelion?
Perihelion
What is angle of Insolation?
The angle that the Sun's rays are hitting the Earth's surface.
What is direct insolation?
When the Sun's rays are hitting a part of the Earth at 90 degrees.
During the Summer Solstice in the Northern Hemisphere what part of the Earth is receiving Direct Insolation?
23 1/2 degrees North (The Tropic of Cancer)
During the Summer OSlstice in the Southern Hemisphere what part of the Earth is receiving Direct Insolation
23 1/2 degrees South (The Tropic of Capricorn)
Why does 23 1/2 degrees North or South get the most direct insolation?
That is the angle of the earths tilt on its axis.
What would happen if the Earth wasn't tilted?
There would only be one season year round.
During the Summer the Sun rises in the ________east and sets in the ________west.
North, North
During the Winter the Sun rises in the ________east and sets in the _______west.
South, South
During the Automal, and Vernal equinoxes the Sun rises in the ________ and sets in the _________.
East, West
The lower the sun is in the sky the __________ your shadow is?
Longer
What season would your shadow be the longest? Why?
The winter becasue the sun is very low in the sky.
Which way does the sun always tilt towards in the Northern Hemisphere?
South
Which direction would your shadow always be in in the Northern Hemisphere?
North
In the Summer there are ________ hours of daylight and ________ hours of darkness.
15, 9
In the Winter there are ________ hours of daylight and ________ hours of darkness.
9, 15
During the Equinoxes there are _______ hours of daylight and _________ hours of darkness.
12, 12
What are the phases of the moon?
New Moon-->Waxing Crescent-->1st Quarter-->Waxing Gibbous-->Full Moon-->Waning Gibbous-->3rd Quarter-->Waning Crescent.
The Moon revolves around the Earth in an _________ orbit.
Elliptical
The Moon takes ________ to revolve around the Earth
one month
What causes tides?
The moon causes tides.
Why does the moon cause tides?
The moon causes tides because it is close to the Earth and has more of an effect on it than the Sun does.
During a day 2 ______ tides and 2 ______ tides occur.
High, Low
When the Earth, Moon, and Sun are aligned a ___________ tide will occur.
Spring
What does a Spring Tide do and what phase of the moon does it occur in?
It results in higher high tides and lower low tides. It occurs in he New and Full phaes of the Moon.
When the Earth, Moon, and Sun are at 90 degree angles with each other a _________ tide will occur.
Neap
What does a Neap Tide do and what phase of the moon does it occur in?
it results in not that big of a change between high and low tides. It occurs in the 1st and 3rd quarter phases of the Moon.
What is Energy?
The capacity to do Work.
What is Electrical energy?
Energy in an electric current
Ex) Plugged in lightbulb
Electrical outlet
What is Kinetic Energy?
Energy of a Moving Body?
Ex) Temperature
The kinetic energy fo the random motion of molecules of matter is caleed ______ energy or thermal energy.
Heat
What is Potential Energy?
Energy that a body has because of its position or state
Ex) A rock on the top of a cliff.
What is Electromagnetic Energy?
Form of energy that can travel through empty space. Everything in the world gives off electromagnetic energy.
The amount of energy given off depends on teh object's ____________.
Temperature
AN object thatgives off energy is known as a heat ______ and the body or ergion into which heat is flowing is known as a heat _________.
Source, Sink
What is Absolute Zero?
The temperatuer at which molecules stop moving (-0 degrees Kelvin)
What is Frequency?
How many waves in a certain amount of time
What is a wavelength?
The distance from trough to trough or crest to crest.
Allwaves travel at the speed of _______.
Light
What is conduction?
Heat that is transfered from one particle of matter to another without the movement of matter.
What type of materials make good conductors?
Solids
What is a Conduction Spider?
A piece of metal that has other metal bars sticking out of it. It is used to measure their specific heats.
What is Specific Heat?
The amount of energy it takes to raise one gram of something one degree Celsius.
Which heats up faster the beach or the water?
Beach
If something has a low specific heat it will heat up ________ and cool down ________.
Fast, Fast
If something has a high specific heat it will heat up _________ and cool down __________.
Slow, Slow
What is convection?
The transfer of energy due to differences in density.
Energy is transferred through conevection in ________ and _________.
Liquids, Solids
What is Radiation?
The transfer of energy that does not require a medium to travel thorugh. (It is able travel through empty space)
What color is a good absorber of energy?
Black
What color is a good reflector of Energy?
White
What kind of surface is a good absorber of energy?
Dark colored and Rough
What kind of surface is a good reflector of energy?
Light colored and Smooth
What is the difference between heat and temperature?
heat is the TOTAL energy of the motion of molecules while temperature is the average energy of the motion of molecules.
What are the 3 main phases of matter?
Solid, Liquid, Gas
What is the phase change of SOlid to Liquid called?
Melting
What is the phase change of Liquid to Gas known as?
Vaporization
What is the phase change of gas to liquid called?
Condensation
What is the phase change of liquid to solid called?
Freezing
What is the phase change of solid to gas called?
Sublimation
What is the phase change of Gas to Solid called?
Deposition
What are the steps of the water cycle?
Evaporation-->Condensation-->Precipitation
What is Evaporation?
The process where liquid wateer turns into a gas (water vapor)
What are the best conditions for Evaporation?
-High temeratures
-Unsaturated air (not filled with water)
-Increase surface area
-Wind
What is Transpiration?
Water from plants
What is Condensation?
Water Vapor that changes to liquid water which forms clouds.
What are the best conditions for Condensation?
-Need Cooler temeratures
-Need Condensation Nuclei (small particles) for the water to condense on
What is precipatation?
Water from the air falling to the ground.
Ex)Hail, rain, snow, etc...
What is the cause of fog?
Clouds that form close to the ground.
What is weather?
The present condition of the atmosphere at any location?
Does weather constantly change?
Yes
What is humidity?
Water vapor in the air
What is relative humidity?
The average amount of water vapor that is in the air.
What is dew point temperature?
The temperature at which air is holding the maximum amount of water vapor (100% Relative Humidity)
What is a Sling Psychromter?
An instrument used to measure relative humidity and dew point temperature?
What is air pressure?
The amount of force exerted by the air's gas molecules hitting a given surface area. (weight of air)
As you go higher in the atmosphere the air pressure __________.
Decreases
Molecules are __________ in warm air.
Farther apart
_______ air weighs more than __________ air.
Cold, Warm
The higher the temperature the _______ the air pressure.
Less
As humidity increases, pressure _________.
Decreases
What is a wind?
Air moving from one place to another horizontally.
What is a current?
Air moving from one place to another vertically.
What is a breeze?
Smaller, more local horizontal winds.
Wind can move _______ from one place to another in the atmosphere.
Energy
Air moves from areas of ___________ pressure to areas of __________ pressure.
High, Low
What are the directions of the air in a low pressure zone?
Into the center and counter-clockwise
What are the directions of the air in a high pressure zone?
Out of the center and clockwise
Low pressure creates __________ weather.
Bad or Lousy (L for Low pressure)
High pressure creates __________ weather
Good or Happy (H for happy)
What is a zone of divergence?
An area where the winds are mvoign away from each other. It creates dry weather.
What is a zone of convergence?
An area where the winds are coming together. Creates wet weather.
What is a Wind Belt?
When wind always follows a certain trail caused by the Coriolis Effect.
In the Northern Hemisphere wind always moves from the _________ to the ________.
West to the East.
What is a sea Breeze?
When air is moving from the Ocean towards the land.
When does a Sea Breeze occur?
During the day
What is a land Breeze?
When air is moving form the land towards the ocean.
When does a Land Breeze occur
During the night
What are winds named for?
Where they originated or came from.
How do Mountains affect weather?
The air starts at one side which is typically moist and it goes up the mountain. Next the air is cooled since it goes up into the atmosphere. The air reaches the dew point temperature and forms a cloud which causes precipatation. Next the air goes down the other side and is very dry. One side of the mountain is typically very moist yearly and the other is very dry yearly.
Pressure is greater at the ___________ of a mountain
Bottom
Why does air get colder when it goes higher up in the atmoshphere.
There is actually less air so there isnt that much friction occuring. The molecules then cool down.
The area of the mountain that receives the precipatation and is moist is known as the ________ side.
Windward
The area of the mounatina that is typically dry is known as the ________ side.
Leeward
What is an air mass?
A section of air that has similar chacteristics all over.
How do air masses get their characteristics?
Where they have formed (Their source region)
What are the 5 basic air masses?
Continental Artic (cA)
Continental Polar (cP)
Continental Tropical (cT)
Maritime Polar (mP)
Maritime Tropical (mT)
What are the characteristics of a Continental Arctic (cA) air mass?
Dry and very cold
What are the characteristics of a Continental Polar (cP) air mass?
Dry and cold
What are the characteristics of a Continental Tropical (cT) air mass?
Dry and Warm
What are the characteristics of a Maritime Polar (mP) air mass?
Moist and Cold
What are the characteristics of a Maritime Tropical (mT) air mass?
Moist and Warm
What is a front?
A boundary between two air masses?
What is a Cold Front?
When a Warm air mass and a cold air mass meet.
What happens during a Cold Front?
The cold air mass pushes under a warm air mass.
What type of weather occurs when a cold front arrives?
Thunderstorms that are short.
What is the weather after a cold front passes?
Colder temperatures but clear skys.
What happens during a Warm Front?
When a warm air mass pushes into a cold air mass.
What type of weather cocurs when a warm front arrives?
Thunderstorms that last a long time.
What is the weather after a warm front passes?
Warmer temperatures.
What is a Stationary Front?
When a warm and cold air mass meet but neither wins out.
What type of weather occurs with a Stationary Front?
Unsettled weather occurs over a wide area.
What is an occluded Front?
When a faster moving cold front overtakes a slower moving warm front.
An occluded front always connects at a __________ pressure center.
Low
What happens at a frontal boundary?
Precipatation
What is a Station Model?
A model that uses symbosl to show weather conditinos ina specific place.
Do station models use units?
No
What are the rules for changing short version pressures to long on a station model.
1) If the first number is less than 5 put a 10 in front of all 3 numbers.
2) IF the first number is more than 5 or equal to 5 put a 9 in front.
3) PUt a decimal before the last number
What are the Long versions for the following pressures:
188
894
1018.8
989.4