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128 Cards in this Set

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When heating test tubes, always pointe the _____ end of the tube away from yourself and others
open
Where should you throw glass away?
Special container
A simple statement or question explaining the reason for the investigation.
Problem
A possible answer to the problem that can be tested.
Hypothesis
A numbered list of steps used to complete the experiment. (specific as possible)
Procedure
A description of what you observed while following the procedure. (DATA TABLE)
Observations
Two simple sentences:(1) Re-write you hypothesis, and (2) state if your hypothesis was proven true of false
Conclusion
An explanation of how you decided that your hypothesis was true of false. Includes mathematical calculations, graphs, and summary data tables.
Analysis
The Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed.
What is the order of conversions?
Kilo Hecto Deca(Da) Base Deci Centi Milli
Mass is measured in ______
Grams
Volume is measured in ______
Liters
Length is measured in ______
Meters
Mass has to do with ____ which measures the amount of matter in a given space.
density
The color of a star tells you how ____ it is.
Hot (also what it is made of)
What color is cold?
Red
What color is hot?
Blue
If a star is big, it's _____
bright
If a star is small, it's ____
dim
Where a star's temperature is plotted against it's brightness.
H-R Diagram
What can you determine by an H-R diagram about a star?
It's properties and life stage.
Stars that can be seen all year
Circumpolar
Stars that are mostly seen during certain times of the year
Equitorial
The wave source is moving away
Red Shift
The wave source is moving closer
Blue Shift
How wave frequencies change from motion
Doppler Affect
What system do we use to tell the distance from a star to the Earth?
Parallax
What is the system of Parallax measured in?
Light years
What is the first step in the life cycle of a star?
Nebula
What is the second step in the life cycle of a star?
Protostar
What is the third step in the life cycle of a star?
Main Sequence
What are the two different ways a star can take after a main sequence star?
Red Giant and Red Supergiant
What comes after red giant?
White Dwarf
What comes after a white dwarf?
Black Dwarf
What comes after a red supergiant?
Supernova
What comes after a supernova?
Neutron Star
What comes after a neutron star?
Black Hole
Shape of a spiral galaxy
Pin-wheel
Elliptical Galaxy
-Typically have older stars
-Most common
-Vary in shape(sphere, elongated, flat disks)
Irregular Galaxy
Doesn't have a regular shape
What kind of galaxy are we in?
Spiral
Globular Cluster
Most common, form into sphere or round shape
Open Cluster
unorganized group of stars
How fast does light travel?
300,000 km/s
What is the Big Bang theory?
Big explostion in space then everything appeared.
What is fusion?
When you take two atoms, smash them together really hard and come up with a new one
Name the structures of the sun from the core and on.
Core, radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona.
What is happening in the core?
Energy is produced (Fusion)

15 million* K - 27 million* K
Radiation Zone
Millions of years to travel through

8 million* K
Convection Zone
Energy travels quicker

7 thousand* K
Photosphere
-Surface of the sun
-Radiation and light escapes

500 km thick/6 thousand* K
Chromosphere
Source of flares/prominences

20 thousand* C
Corona
-Crown
-Seen only during solar eclipses
-Made of ions
-Source of solar wind

2 million* C
Solar Wind
Ions are so hot, gravity can't hold them onto the sun
Sun Spots
-Cool (temp.) spot
-Caused by twisting of magnectic fields
Solar Flares
-Violent eruption, only lsts for a few minutes
-Can cause auroras
When do prominences happen?
During solar eclipses
What are prominences?
Cool sheets of gas that condense out of the corona above the active regions
How did the solar system form?
-Nebular Theory-The sun and the planets condenseed out of the same spinning nebula.
-1796 by de Laplace
What are planetesimals?
Small bodies thought to have orbited the sun during the formation of the planets
What are protoplanets?
The initial phase in the development of a planet
What is a solar nebula?
A gaseous cloud (or accretion disc) from which solar systems are formed
Formation of the Earth
-Temp. of Baby Earth was hot enough to melt iron
-Gravity pulled melted iron to core
-More dense materials ended up in the center, and less dense on the outside
Mercury
-Little to no atmosphere
-Hard, rocky, and pitted with many impact craters
-No moons
Venus
-Thick atmosphere, mainly composed of Carbon Dioxide
-Thick layers of clouds, mostly made of sulfuric acid.
-Constant lightening
-Similar to Earth
What is the Earth's atmosphere composed of?
Nitrogen(78%)
Oxygen (21%)
Trace Gases (1%)
What kind of weather and atmosphere does our moon have?
No atmosphere and no weather
Mars
-Thin atmosphere
-Dust storms black out sky
-Red rust color
-Plenty of impact craters
-Largest volcano (Olympus Mons)
-Largest canyon (Valles Marineris
What are the two moons of Mars?
Phobos and Demos
Jupiter
-Hydrogen and Helium atmosphere
-Constant storms, thick clouds
-63 known moons
Saturn
-Hydrogen and helium atmosphere
-Windy, constant storms
-Liquid surface
-32 known moons
What is Saturn's biggest moon and why is it so special?
Titan, believed to be closest to primative Earth environment
Uranus
-hydrogen and helium atmosphere
-Lack of sunlight effects weather
-Plain surface
-27 known moons
Neptune
-hydrogen and helium atmosphere
-Very active weather
-8 known moons
Great Dark Spot
Neptune, long gone
Pluto
-Biggest of the Kuiper Belt objects
-Nitrogen and Carbon Monoxide atmosphere
-Cloudy and windy
-1 known moon
-Rock and ice surface
What are the 4 Jovian (outer) planets?
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

-Gas Giants
What are the 4 Terrestrial (inner) planets?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars

-Rock Surface
How many moons do the Terrestrial planets have?
Three
What is retrograde motion?
The apparent reversal of a planets normal motion against the background of fixed stars
Asteroids
Fragments of rock that orbit the sun

-elliptical orbits
Asteroids are classified into what three categories?
1). Carbon
2). Iron and Nickel
3). Silicate minerals
Comets
-Made of rock, ices, and tars
-Consist of nucleas, coma, and tails
-Tails points away from sun
-Elliptical orbit around the sun
The Oort Cloud
A spherical cloud of dust and ice that contain nuclei of as many as a trillian comets

-astronomers believe comets come from Oort Cloud
Meteroids
-Smaller bits of rock or metal
-Most burn up when attempting to enter the atmosphere
Meteor
A meteroid that is burning up while entering the atmosphere
Meteorite
A meteoroid or any part of one that is left after it hits the earth
What are the three groups that meteorites are classified as?
1). Stony (rock-like)
2). Iron (metallic appearance)
3). Stony-Iron (BOTH)
How many Apollo mission went to the moon?
Six
Maria
-Dark area of the Moon, lava flows
-Always faces the Earth
Highlands
-light areas of the moon
-older than the maria
What makes up the Highlands?
Anorthosite
What makes up the Maria?
Basalt
What can be found in both the Highland and the Maria?
Breccia
What are rills?
Channels cut by molten basalt
Spring tide
The sun's and moon's gravitational force is working together
Neap tide
The sun's and moon's gravitational force oppose each other
Ebb current
As the tide goes out
Flood current
As the tide comes in
Apogee
Furthest distance from the sun during orbit (moon)
Perigee
Closest distance from the sun during orbit (moon)
The inner cone shape of the shadow is called the _____
umbra
The outer part of the shadow is called the ______
Penumbra
Time it takes for one rotation (Earth-24 hours)
Day
Time it takes for the moon to go through one cycle (Earth-29.5 days)
Month
How are the layers divided?
Temperature
Where is almost all atmospheric moisture found?
Troposphere
Where is the jet stream located?
Below the tropopause
Where is the ozone layer?
Statosphere
Where do most meteors burn up?
Mesosphere
What are the two sub-chategories of the thermosphere?
ionosphere and exosphere
What is the coldest layer?
Mesosphere
Climate
Long term
Weather
happening now
What are the Greenhouse gasses?
carbon dioxide, chlorofloro dioxide, methane nitrous oxide
What does the Greenhouse Effect do?
Traps the sun's heat (carbon dioxide)
What is the importance of the ozone?
It protects the Earth's inhabitants by absorbing harmful UV rays from the sun
Coriolis Effect
Causes winds in the Northern Hemisphere to be deflected to the right and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
Which global wind are we in?
Westerlies
Cloud Formation
1). Warm, moist air rises
2). Rising air expands and cools to its dew point
3). Water vapor condenses on condensation nuclei to form liquid cloud droplets
Convective cooling
-Hot air from surface cools as it rises
-Adiabatice temperature changes
Forceful lifting
-When air mass meets a mountain
-Air is forced upwards
-Cools
Advective cooling
-Warm, moist air travels over a cold body of water
Cold front
-Cumulus clouds
-Heavy precipitation
Warm front
-Stratus clouds
-Light precipitation
Occluded
-Cold catches up with warm
-Heavy precipitation
-Cumulus clouds
Stationary
-Don't move
-Precipitation
-Weak winds
Isobar
Measures barometric pressure