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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Number of organisms that a specific environment can support
carrying capacity
where a mining company restores land used during mining operations to its original contours and replants vegetation
small particles in the atmostphere around which cloud droplets can form
condensation nuclei
when cloud droplets collide to form larger droplets
continual movement of water between Earth's surface and the atmosphere through evaporation, condesation, and precipitation
water cycle
caused byu earths rotation and combines with the heat to create winds, polar esterlies, and prevailing westerlies
coriolis effect
weather forecast that compares curren weather patterns to patterns that occured in the past
analog forecast
used to measure wind speed
balloon borne weather instrument whose sensors measure air pressure, humidity, temp, wind speed, and direction
change in the wave frequency that occurs in energy when that energy moves toard or away from observor
doppler effect
line drawn on a weather map that connects points of equal or constant values
occurs when forceful winds drive a mound of ocean water toward shore, where it washes over land
storm surge
extended period of low rainfall
estimates heat loss from human skin caused by combonation of wind and cold air
wind chill factor
divides climate into 5 types, based on mean monthly values of temp. and precipitation
koeppen system
fault that does things the other way
reverse fault
biological diversity of an ecosystem, determined by variety of species of plants and animals
a gas, absorbs UV raylights from the sun
planting of a single plant species
haze that occurs when solar radiation air polluted from automobiles exhausts
removale of trees from forest area
use of organisms to clean up toxic waste
air sinks, wamrs, and returns to the equator in westerly directins, flows and 30 degrees North and South
trade winds
global wind system that lies between 60 degrees lat. and the poles and is characterized by cold air
polar esterlies
wind system lies between 30 degrees and 60 degrees N. and S. latitude where surface air moves to poles in easterly direction
prevailing westerlies
wind band above large temp. contrast and can flow as fast as 185 km/h.
jet streams
lower than normal temp caused by high pressure systems of continental polar or arctic origin
cold wave
higher than normal temperature by high pressure systems that warm by compression and block cooler air masses
heat wave
time it takes for a radioactive isotope, to deca to 1/2 its original amount
half line
adaption of life forms to changing environment conditions
describes a fossil with soft and hard parts that havent undergone any change since the organism death
original preservation
gap in rock caused by erosion
determines age of rock
radio metric dating
where volcanoes vent water, carbon dioxide, ext.
where pore spaces in fossil are filled with mineral subsatnces
What happens when a population reaches its carrying capacity?
the number of deaths will increase and births will decrease
What problem can result from an increase in land being covered by cement and asphalt?
What is the composition of the Earth's atmosphere?
mostly nitrogen and oxygen
What type of weather are low pressure systems usually associated with?
cold, precipitation, and cloudy
What causes lightning?
friction between updrafts and downdrafts in a cumlionimbus cloud
What weather threat is usually associated with supercells?
explain climatological normals.
Normals represent standard values for a location, average on a monthly or annually basis and information applies anywhere the data is collected
How does that latitude of an area determine it's climate?
based on the distance from the poles
Describe the 5 climates. dry, polar, continental, mild, and tropical
dry- precip. is low, vegetation is scarce
polar-constant low temp. and little precep.
continental-summer and winter can be extreme
mild- humid or dry summers
Why was wegeners theory not accepted at first?
he couldnt explain how or why
How does the ocean crust near ocean ridges compare to the crust near deep sea trenches?
crust near ocean ridge is younger
Explain the process of sea floor spreading.
crust seperates at ocean ridge, magma comes up, NEW OCEAN CRUST FORMS, crust subducts at deep sea trench and is destroyed
What results in the process of subduction?
causes deep sea trenches
What results from continental-continental plate collisions?
process moutain ranges
What is the driving force of plate movements?
convection currents that occur in the mantle
What three things affect the formation of magma?
comparing source material, water content, and pressure
At what type of boundary do most volcanoes occur?
convergent boundaries
Describe the 6 layers of the atmosphere; exosphere, ionosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, thrmosphere, and troposphere.
exopshere-outermost layer
ionoshpere-filled with electrically charged particles
mesosphere-between stratosphere and thermosphere
stratosphere-contains ozone layer
thermosphere-temp can reach more than 1000 degrees C
troposhpere-most pollution
Describe four types of air masses: maritime polar, maritime tropical, continental tropical, and continental polar
maritime polar- cool and humid
maritime tropical- warm and humid
continental tropical-warm and dry
continental polar- cold and dry
What are the latitudes of the 3 climate regions; temperate, tropical, polar.
temperate- 23.5-66.5
tropical- equator-23.5
polar-66.5 and above
Describe the 3 types of magma; basaltic, andesitic, rhyolitic.
basaltic-lowest viscosity, forms in upper mantle
andesidic- 60% silica, continental margins
rhyolitic-most explosive, continental crust
What is the law of superposition?
oldest rock layer is at the bottom of sequence
What is the most recent period?
List the units of geological time in order from shortest to longest.
epoch, period, era, ieon
What time period is marked by the appearance of organisms with hard parts?
late proteozic
How do scientists believe the ozone layer was formed?
oxygen produced by stromatollets
What significant substance was discovered at hydrothermal vents and how was it significant?
ameno acids
Describe how radioactice decay is used to determine the age of rocks and fossils.
decay into a mere stable elementary scientist compare the original material (parent) to subte material (daughter)
How old is the earth estimated to be?
4.6 billion years old
What is an index fossil?
common place while acive, geography wide spread, easily recognizable
What are the three early sources of heat on earth?
radio activity
gravitational contraction
What kind of fault is the sanandrea fault?
a strike slip fault
Describe the 3 types of seismic wave; surface, primary, secondary. (surface p and s)
surface- highest amplitude
P wave- detected first, squeezes and pulls rocks same direction
S wave- makes rock move at right angle as waves travel