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130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Earth general
3rd planet fro sun, water in all phases
Earth dimensions
oblate spheroid, highest point-mt everest, lowest point, mariana trench.
earth megastructure-composition
core (Ni,Fe), mantleFe,Mg), crust(Si,Al)
earth megastructure-physical
inner core (solid), outer core(liquid), mesophere(lower mantle), astenosphere(upper mantle), lithosphere(crust and upper mantle)
parallels
N/S of equator-latitude 0-90 degrees.
Meridians
E/W of prime meridian-0-180 degrees-merge at poles.
Earth resources
mineral ores, soils/plants, water, clean air, living space
Minerals defined
homogeneous, naturally occuring, solid, inorganic, definable chemical comp, and orderly arrange of atoms.
mineraloid
has all characteristics of minerals except order (opal)
rocks
coherent aggragates of minerals
Rock forming silicates
most common meral group, contains silicon and oxygen tetrahedron.
Dominant silicates
feldspars and quartz
Feldspars
most plentiful mineral group of rock forming silicates-Al2SiO4
Quartz
pure silica-rock forming silicate-SiO2
Nonsilicate minerals
Oxides, sulfides, sulfates, halides
Oxides
Nonsilicate minerals-Magnetite Fe3O4
Sulfides
Nonsilicate minerals-Pyrite-FeS2
Sulfates
Nonsilicate minreals-Gypsum-CaSO42H2O
Halides
Nonsilicate minerals-NaCl
Element abundance
O,Si,Al,Fe,Ca,Na,K,Mg
Properties of minerals
Color, streak,luster,hardness,specific gravity, crystal form, crystal habit, clevage, special properties
Chemical Subdivisions of minerals
Ferromagnesian and Sialic
Carbonates
Nonsilicate Minerals-carbonates-calcite-CaCO3
Native Elements
Nonsilicate minerals-Cu,Au,Ag,C, S
Rock Properties
Chemical composition, Sizes of mineral grains, texture, layering
Chemical composition of rock
Mafic, Felsic, Intermediate
Mafic Chemical Comp
Rocks rich in ferromagnesium minerals-dark
Felsic Chemical Comp
Rocks rich in sialic minerals-light
Size of mineral grains rocks
Coarse, fine
Coarse grain
grains are large
Fine grain
grains are small
Texture of rocks
arrangenment of crystal grains
Layering
bedding and foliation
Igneous Rocks
Result from cooling and crystalllization of molten rock
Magma
Molten rock within the earth
Lava
Molten rock erupted through a fissure or volcano at the surface
Origins of magma
melting of rock below the earth's surface
Types of igneous rock
intrusive, extrusive
Intrusive (plutonic)igneous rock
slow cooling below round, large grain(phaneritic)
Extrusive (volcanic)
rapid cooling near the ground surface-(aphanetic)
Obsidian
Not a rock-volcanic glass form by lava cooling quickly w/ water
Xenolith
Fragments of surround rock brought to surface that did not melt
Rhyolite
Igneous, felsic(light), extrusive, small grain (aphanitic)
Basalt
Igneous, mafic(dark), extrusive, small grain(aphanitic)
Granite
Igneous, felsic(light), intrusive, large grain(phaneritic)
Gabbro
Igneous, mafic(dark),intrusive, large grain(paheritic)
Sedimentary rocks
rocks caused by lithification of loose sediment from eroded rocks. Occurs as sequences of rock layers(strata)-commonly contain fossils
Lithification
creation of hard rock by compaction of sediment under weight and cementation w/ silica and CO3
Detrital (clastic)
rocks formed from weathered(igneous) types are based on texture (large)cobble, gravel, sand, silt, clay(small)
Deposition
Sedimentary rocks form by deposit-heaviest deposit first-dense sediment-shoreline
Clay
smallest sediment forms clay
Silt
second smallest sediemnt forms siltstone
Sand
third smallest sediement forms sandstone
coal
formed in swamps/stagnant waters where vegetation is preserved.
Sedimentary structure
cross-bedding, graded bedding, ripple marks, mud cracks
cross bedding
concave upwards-wind and water erosion-horizontal
graded bedding
fines upward-horizontal
ripple marks
soft beds of sand in shallow water
mud cracks
edges warp upward
Chemical formation sedimentary
rocks formed dissolving minerals in water-evaporites, limestone, and chert
Limestone
most common chemical produces sedimentary rock-calcite
metamorphic rocks
formed by transformation of other rocks by applcation of pressure/heat
Types of metamorphic rock
contact and regional
Contact
type of metamorphic rock caused by heating by magma recrystalizing
regional
caused by high pressure and temp result in compression of existing rock.
limestone metamorphs
marble
metamorph slate
shale
metamorph phyllite
Slate
Metamorph Schist
Phyllite
Metamophic Gneiss
Schist
Metamorphic marble
limestone
Metamorphic quartzite
sandstone
Anthracite
Coal
Continental Crust
thickness-35km density-2.7g cm cubed, felsic rock most common, rocks are oldest in center of continents, mtns near edges.
Oceanic crust
thickness-7km, density-3 g cm cubed-rocks younger less than 150 myo, includes deep trenches, wide ridges, and seamounts
Continental drift
proposed 1914 by Wegner 200 mya continents one large mass(pangaea)-drifted to current local
evidence continental drift
jigsaw puzzle, fossils, modern animals, rock types match across oceans
problem w/ continental drift
nothing to account for move
Sea floor spreading
Hess 1962-magma rises to surface extruded at rits, magma cools and hardens, causes movement of crustal plates
Modern Theory of plate tectonics
lithosphere-made of 20 plates (both oceanic and continental plates), boundaries charac. by earthquakes and volcanism
Continent plates
active margin or passive margin
active margin
margin of continent that coincides w/ plate boundary
passive margin
margin of continent that does not coincide w/ plate boundary
Convection
driving force behind plate movement-rise of warm air lower of coolcer air through mantle cause plates too move
Types of plates
divergent, convergent, transform
divergent plates
spreading forming rifts in either ocean/continent
convergent plates
plates move together one plate pass over the top of another forcing the other down
transform plates
plates slide by one another-transform fault
Stress
force applied from one or several directions on some object
strain
change in shape and volume of an object induced by stress
Major Rock Structures
Folds, Faults, Joints
Folds
Rock structure results from bending behavior from compression stress-four types: anticline, syncline, dome, structural basin
anticline
type of fold-upward symmetric bending of rock-may plunge
syncline
type of fold downward symmetric beding of rock-may plunge
dome
broad up warp of rock-circular
structural basin
broad down warp-circular
Fault
rock structure-results from brittle fracturing behavior under compression, extension, or transform stress normal, reverse, thrust, strike slip
Normal fault
tensional hanging wall moves down relative to footwall
reverse fault
compressional-hanging wall moves up relative to footwall
thrust fault
compressional-low angle reverse fault
strike slip
shear, horizontal motion-transform like.
Horst
upward mountain
Graben
under valley
joints
rock structure-fractures, but no displacement has occured results from: cooling lava, pressure release, regional stress
Intrusive
Igneous rock body-magma cools below ground form large grain, classed by shape, orientation
Intrusive classes
dike, sill, laccolith, batholith
Dike
intrusive igneous feature-tabular discordant-magma injected into fractures-form a thick table
Sill
intrusive igneous feature-tabular accordant-injected along sedimentary bedding
Laccolith
intrusive igneous feature-lens shaped-accordant-form blisters
Batholith
intrusive igneous feature-massive discordant large deep-
Extrusive
Lava-expelled through the crust-lava types pahoehoe, aa
Pahoehoe
smooth, ropy lava, basltic, hot, low viscosity, flows as a stream
aa
rough, blocky lava, basltic, coler, flow looks like a pile of rocks
pyroclastic
materails magma erupt violently into air by the escape of dissolved gases
ash
less than 2mm falls out to form sheets of welded ash particles called tuff
Types of volcanoes
shield, composite, cinder cones
Shield volcano
broad, convex landform, fluid lavas, baslatic, effusive(gentle) eruptive style, few pyroclastics (hawaii)
composite volcano
statovolcano-steep conical langform, viscous, gas-rich lavas of vary chemistry, explosive eruptive style, many pyroclastics
nuee ardente
pyroclasic density flow up to 200 kph downslope
Cinder cones
type of volcano-steep cones w/ wide craters-composed chiefly of lapilli-sized reddish brown pyroclastics
Hot spot
Plates move over hot spots-land pokes up to form an island-plate moves on forming more and more
earthquake wave types
S waves, p waves, surface waves
S waves
sine wave oscillation whipping vertical
P wave
compression slinky like-lateral motion
surface waves
most damaging-close to the earth's surface-rotary motion
Elastic rebound model
release of seismic energy along a fault line is caused by stress and minerals elasticity after removal of stress.
Focus
radiates deep below earth's surface in all directions
epicenter
the point that is on the surface directly above the focus-strongest seismic energy
Intensity
modifed mercalli scale-subjective measure based on the amount of damage-checklist to victims
Magnitute
Ojective measure-Richter Scale-based on wave amplitude-logrithms-10 base.