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20 Cards in this Set

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Electromagnetic spectrum
arrangement of light waves (ex. ultraviolet, visible, infrared, x-rays) according to wavelengths and frequencies
Photon
light in a stream of particles (like bullets fired from a machine gun) that give off radiation
Spectroscopy
study of properties of light that depend on wavelength. (think of light going through a prism that produces a rainbow of colors)
Continuous spectrum
when light is produced by solid, liquid or gas under high pressure. (example: light bulb)
Absorption spectrum
when light is produced by visible light passing through cool gas under low pressure
Emission spectrum
light produced by hot gas under low pressure. (think light produced by most stars)
Doppler effect
perceived change in wavelength of sound and light waves that are moving toward or away. (example: an ambulance siren seems higher pitched when approaching and lower when moving away). used to determine if body in space is moving toward or away from Earth.
Refracting telescope
telescope built by Galileo that used a lens to bend light. could magnify up to 30 times.
Chromatic aberration
when red, blue and purple objects appear to be out of focus and have halos when seen through a refracting telecope
Reflecting telescope
telescope built by Newton that used a mirror to reflect light. no chromatic abberration (colors out of focus) with this kind.
Radio telescope
focuses the incoming radio waves on an antenna, which absorbs and transmits the waves to an amplifier (like a radio antenna)
Photosphere
bottom layer in solar atmosphere. radiates most of the light we see. think of as the visible "surface" of the sun
Chromosphere
second layer in solar atmosphere. thin layer of hot gases that appears as a thin, red rim around the sun.
Corona
outermost layer of the solar atmosphere. produces the sun's glow. extends a million kilometers from the sun.
Solar wind
stream of protons and electrons that boil from the corona. wind at speeds of 800 kilometers per second.
Sunspot
dark spots on the surface of the photosphere of the sun
Prominence
huge cloudlike structures made of gases that look like giant arches.
Solar flare
brief explosion that lasts for about an hour and looks like a bright flash above a sunspot
Aurora
effect of solar flare. when the Earth's atmosphere at the poles glows for several nights. also called northern and southern lights.
Nuclear fusion
the way that the sun produces energy. (this reaction converts 4 hydrogen nuclei nto the nucleus of a helium atom)