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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is convection?
heat transfer within a fluid by current
What does convection cause?
differences in temperature and density
What is density?
How much mass there is in the volume of a substance?
What is a convection current?
the flow that transfers heat within a current
How does temperature affect density?
density decreases as heat increases (wax melts)
density increases as heat decreases (ice turns to water)
What causes a convection current?
1. heating and cooling of a fluid
2. changes in fluid density
3. force of gravity
What causes a convection current in the earth
heat from the core and the mantle
What does the convection current in the earth cause?
a cycle of rising and sinking in the earth -- has gone on for millions of years
How does the earth's temperature change as you go deeper into the earth?
1. cool close to the surface
2. gets hotter at 20 meters
3. goes 1 degree higher for every 40 meters
4. slowly increases
What causes high temperatures in the earth
1. heat left over from the planet's formation
2. radioactive substances that release energy?
How does pressure change as you go deeperinto the earth?
it increases
What is the earth's crust?
Layer of rock that rock that forms the Earth's outer skin
what two things are part of the Earth's crust?
1. solid rock from dry land
2. the ocean's floor
Where is the crust thinnest?
beneath the ocean
Where is the crust thickest?
under mountains
What is the mantle?
layer of hot rock at 40 km beneath the surface
What is the mantle made up of?
very hot, solid rock
What are the three layers of the mantle?
1. lithosphere
2. asthnosphere
3. lower mantle
What is the lithosphere?
the uppermost layer and the crust
What does lithos mean?
How is the asthenoshpere different than the lithosphere?
the asthenoshpere is:
- hotter
- under increasing pressure
- soft but still solid
What does asthnes mean?
Is the lower mantle solid or liquid?
solid all the way to core
What is core made up of?
mostly iron and nickel
What are the 2 parts of the core
1. the liquid outer part
2. the solid inner part
What is the outer core?
Molten (melted) metal that surrounds the inner core
What does the movement of liquid in the core create?
A magnetic field
What evidence do we have that the core is magnetic?
The arrows on the compass point N/S/E/W
What is the inner core?
dense ball of solid metal
Why is the inner core solid?
the pressure is so great in the inner core that the atoms of iron and nickel can's spread and turn liquid despite the heat
What does the inner core contain?
iron, nickel, oxygen, sulfer and silicon.
In what direction does heat move?
From warm to cool
what are 3 types of heat transfer?
What is radiation?
transfer of energy through space without direct contact between two objects
(example: sunlight/heat from a flame)
Wht is conduction?
heat transfer withiin a material or between two objects that touch
(heat in pan - up spoon- to hand)
What 2 types of evidence do scientists use to find out about the Earth's interior?
direct evidence from rock samples
indirect evidence from seismic
Where do rock samples come from?
deep inside the earth
sometimes drilled. sometimes blasted up
What do rock samples help scientists do?
make inferences about what it's like inside the earth
What are seismic waves?
patterns of energy that are caused by earthquakes
How do seismic waves help scientists?
the speed and paths of seismic waves show the structure of the earth
What are the 3 layers of earth?
2. mantle
3. core
How do the 3 layers of earth differ.
The layers of the earth differ in:
1. size
2. composition
3. temperature
4. pressure