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61 Cards in this Set

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Element
a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
Atom
the smallest particle of an element taht has all the characteristics of that element.
Atom is made of 3 smaller particles...
-protons
-neutrons
-electrons
protons
have a mass, a postivie electrical charge and are found in the nucleus
neutrons
have a mass, a neutral electrical charge and are found in nucleus.
electrons
have very little mass, a negative elctrical charge and are found in energy levels outside the nucleus
engergy levels-#'s
-2e
-8e
-18e
valence electrons
in the outer-most energy level, also called bonding electrons
an atom becomes a negatively charged ion when?
the atom gains electrons
an atom becomes a postively charged ion when?
the atom lose electrons
Atomic Number
combined mass of the protons and electrons
Atomic Mass/Mass number
the number of protons/electrons in the atom
Covalent Bonding
happens when the valence electrons are shared between 2 atoms. the electrons are shared so that the outer-most energy level is full (Nobles gasses).
Ionic Bonding
happens when valence electrons are transferred (given and taken) between 2 atoms. the attraction from the opposite charged atoms is what bonds them together.
Compound
a substance that is composed of atoms of 2 or more different elements that are chemically combined.

-ex:water-H20
Mixture
a combination of 2 or more elements that retain their identities.
Heterogeneous:


Homogeneous:
-easily recognizable--ex: soil


-particles cannot be distinguished--ex:coffee
ion
atom that gains or loses electrons and now has a charge.
acid
a solution containing a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+)
base
is a solution containing a substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-)
Solids
densely packed particles arranged ni a definite pattern, or crystal structure
Liquids
do not have their own shape
what happens when heat is added to a solid?
the atoms start to vibrate-at the melting oiutn, the particles slide psat each other creating a liquid.
evaporation
happen when the particles vibrate vigorously and particles gain sufficient energy to escape the liquid
sublimation
is the slow change of state from a solid to a gas w/ out hitting the liquid state
Mineral characteristics
-naturally occuring
-inorganic
-solid
-specific chemical composition
-definite crystalline structure
crystal
a solid in which the atoms are arranged in repeating patterns

-(cubic, tetragonal, hexagonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, triclinic)
When magma cools fast=what size crystal?


when magma cools slow=what size crystal?
small


large
When saturated water cannot dissolve any more solid minerals....
start to precipitate and drop out of the solution
when the liquid evaporates...
the elements left behind may arrange into crystals
Mineral groups
-Silicates-silicon/oxygen

-Carbonates-Carbon

-Oxides-oxygen/metal
Mineral identification
-color
-texture
-streak
-hardness--Mohs hardness scale
-cleavage and fracture
-density and specific gravity
Special properties
-magnetism
-odor
-double refraction
-HCL
-taste
ore
a mineral is an ore if it contains a useful substance that can be mined for a profit.
Mineral Uses
-Ores

-Mines
Gems
valuable minerals-rare/beauty
igneous rocks form when?
as magma cools and crystallizes
intrusive rocks
rocks formed inside Earth-have a larger grain size-coarser
extrusive
rocks formed from lava (magma above ground)-fine grained
Factors that effect maga formation
-temperature
-pressure
-water content
-mineral content
Extrusive rocks (examples)
Rhyolite-lots of silica 70%-Felsic

Andesite-medium silica 60%-Intermediates

Basalt-little silica 50%-Mafic
Intrusive Rocks (examples)
Granite lots of silica 70%-Felsic

Diotire medium silica 60%-Intermediates

Gabbro little silica 50%-Mafic
Type of Sed. Rock//Examples//How formed
Clastic conglomerate lithi.
-coarse, med. sandstone of
fine grain shale calcite
Sediments

Organic
-shells/plant limestone accum.
matter coal lithi.
of living
things

Chemical
-Calcite limestone percip.
Halite rock salt of diss.
Gypsum rock gypsum minerals
from
water
Steps to Form Sedi. Rocks
-Erosion and Weathering
-Transportation
-Desposition (dropped)
-Burial
-^ pressure, ^ temperature
-compaction----> pressure
-cementation---->temperature
Lithification
physical and chemical processes that transform sediments into sedimentary rocks
Graded Bedding
when particle size becomes progressively heavier and coarser towards the bottom layers.
Cross bedding
inclines layers of sediments move forwards across a horizontal surface
Energy sources from Sedimentary rocks
oil, natural gas, and coal
calcite reacts with?
acid
what are 3 main types of metamorphic rocks?-describe them
-contact-small area

-regional-large area

-hydrothermal-hot water
which metamorphic rock does the heat have to come to form?
contact
what type of metamorphic rock alters the chemistry and minerology of a rock, and what does it do to the minerals?
-hydrothermal

-dissolves some minerals, breaks down some, and deposites new minerals
what is the difference between a clastic sedimentary rock, and a chemically formed sedimentary rock?
-clastic rocks are formed with sediments, chemically formed by percipitation of dissolved minerals from water
what is limestone made of?
calcite
what rock does granite change into?
gneiss
felsic?

mafic?
-light-has a lot of silica

-darker as less silica-more dense
2 main economic uses for metamorphic rocks
slate-roofing

marlbe-building
4 metamorphic rates of shale
slate-phylite-schist-gneiss
parent rock of quartzite
sandstone
parent of marble
limestone
how are metamorphic rocks identified?
whether they are foiliated or non foiliated