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18 Cards in this Set

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What two ingredients need to be present for clouds to form?
1. air which has reached dew point
2. Condensation nucleus (surface for water vapor to condense on)
In a cloud, what forms are the water in?
droplets or ice crystals
Convective cooling process?
Air rises, expands, cools to DP, and forms clouds
Adiabatic temp change?
Temp change due to change in pressure (expands from low pressure and cools, compression from higher pressure and warms)
Why does humid air cool more slowly than dry air?
The condensation of water vapor (when air cools and reaches dew point) releases latent heat
forced lifting?
When air is forced up (cool air which would not rise except it’s being shoved up over a mountain, or warmish air which is being forced up above a mass of cold air pushing toward it)
advective cooling?
When warm moist air flows over a cold surface (or air mass), and cools to dew point (and then forms clouds)
Stratus
layered, usually low-altitude (2000 m), forms via advective cooling. Boring “overcast” clouds, usually very little rain.
Cumulus
heaped/piled, usually mid-altitude (4000 m), forms via convective cooling. Fair-weather clouds.
Cirrus
curly, high-altitude (6000 m) wispy clouds made from ice crystals
Alto means _____.
mid-level altitude
Nimbo/Nimbus means ____.
rain
Nimbostratus
heavy, dark, low altitude clouds which bring large amounts of rain/snow
Cumulonimbus
also known as “thunderheads” – tall, billowing clouds which can reach up to 70.000 ft above earth’s surface – cause thunderstorms with winds, heavy rains, possibly hail and/or tornadoes
Ground fog (radiation fog)
forms at night when land cools from loss of radiation (ie, when the sun goes down). Forms in low-lying areas.
Upslope fog
forms via adiabatic cooling of humid air which is forced up a slope of a mountain.
Advection fog
forms when warm air flows over cold surface (cold coastal areas or cold-water currents out in the middle of the ocean)
Steam fog
forms in late summer/early fall as cool air moves over warm water in ponds/lakes/streams. (Water is at its warmest from absorbing summer heat, air masses are the first cool air masses of autumn – air directly over water warms, but as it rises into cooler air above, reaches dew point and forms fog – looks like the lake is “steaming”)