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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Attachment Behavior
Any behavior that has a predictable outcome of inc the proximity of the child to an attachment figure
Signs of Attachment
Looking, crying, following, smiling, clinging
Social Referencing
looking to caregiver to determine how to respond in new or ambiguous situations (as in the visual cliff expt)
Secure Attachment
-Infant is mildly upset when mom leaves
-Mothers are responsive to baby's cues
-Kids are more curious, popular, and have higher self esteem as adults
Insecure/Ambivalent Attachment
-kid gets very upset when mom leaves, but acts ambivalent when mom returns
-mothers are often moody/inconsistent
Insecure/Avoidant Attachment
-not very upset when mom leaves
-avoids mom when she returns
-mothers are either impatient/unresponsive or supply child with excessive stimulation
Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment
-kids show fear of their caregivers
-kids have likely been mistreated
-often display hostility towards others at age 5
-a person's basic disposition which influences how they respond to a certain situation
-affected by heredity
Can parenting practices modify a child's temperament?
What are the 9 basic temperament qualities? (Thomas and Chess)
1. activity level
2. rhythmicity
3. approach or withdrawal to novel stimuli
4. adaptability to change
5. intensity of reaction
6. threshold of repsonsiveness
7. quality of mood
8. distractibility
9. attention span
The Easy Child
-Positive moods
-regular sleeping/eating patterns
-adapts to change well
-positive approach to novelty
The Difficult Child
-neg moods
-unpredictable sleep/eat patterns
-resists change
-intense emotional rxns
-withdrawal from novelt
The Slow-To-Warm-Up Child
-more inactive
-somewhat neg moods
-takes time to adjust to change and new people
Which child type puts the kid at the highest risk for adjustment problems?
difficult type
Goodness of fit Model
the degree of match btw parents behaviors and child's temperament that contributes to outcome
What are Baumrind's two dimensions of parenting?
1. responsivity (warmth)
2. demandingness (control)
Authoritarian parents
-low warmth, high control
-kids are irritable, agressive, have low self esteem
Authoritative parents
-high warmth with rational control
-kids are assertive, self confidant, achievement oriented
Rejecting/neglecting parents
-low warmth and control, often hostile
-kids have low self esteem, moody, agressive
Gender Identity
-image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics
-fixed by about 25 months
What does make believe play indicate?
the development of representation
What does sociodramatic play indicate?
ability to make believe play with others
Parallel play
solitary play next to each other with little to no interaction btw the two
Associative play
playing with same toy in pairs but without any real interaction
Cooperative play
real interactions btw kids with turn taking
What does play help develop?
-social skills
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
Language is the foundation of higher cognitive process
What have been the outcomes of the headstart program?
-higher IQ in the first few yrs of elementary school
-less likely to be placed in special ed
-greater number of HS grads
-demonstrated that it was cost effective
What can parents do to improve a child's social/emotional competence?
-arrange supervised time with friends
-provide help with problem solving and conflict management
-help them label and express their emotions properly
-point out the feelings of others
What are the characteristics of agression in 2-4 yr olds?
-physical not verbal
-often after conflict with parents
-goal is instrumental
What are the characteristics of agression in 4-8 yr olds?
-verbal not physical
-goal is hostile
-often after conflicts with peers