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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Communication
One person (or more) sends and receives messages that are distorted by noise, occur within a context have some effect, and provide some opportunity for feedback.
Elements of Human communication
effect source-receiver messages noise channels
Physical context
tangible or concrete environment of communication *communicate differently in noisy crowd than quiet woods
Social psychological context
status relationships, rules and roles, friendliness, formality, seriousness *boyfriend vs friend vs parent
temporal context
time of day and time history *difficult to communicate during winter depression
cultural context
beliefs, values, and ways of behaving shared by a group *spain-touching behavior
source
person who encodes a message
receiver
person who decodes a message
encoding
putting message into form that can be understood by others
decoding
translating message from code
channel
medium through which messages are transmitted
feedback
messages sent back to speaker reacting to what is said
turn requesting, turn yeilding, turn maintaining
when you want to speak, raise hand, cough--look and acknowledge--not looking @ inturruptor
channel
medium through which messages are transmitted
feedback
messages sent back to speaker reacting to what is said
leakage
communicating without meaning to
dimentions of feedback
positive, negative- person focused, message focused - immediate, delayed- low monitoring, high monitoring - supportive, critical
feedforward
information you provide before sending your primary messages; reveals something about messages to come
functions of feedforward
opening channels of communication; previewing future messages; altercasting; disclaiming
altercasting
asking reciever to approach your message in a particular role (as a single mother...)
types of noise
physical, physiiological, psychological, semantic
physical noise
inference that is external to both speaker and listener (screeching cars, humming computer)
physiological noise
physical barriers withinthe speaker or listener (visual impairments, hearing loss)
psychologicl noise
cognitive or mental interference (biases, prejudices, close-mindedness)
semantic nosie
speaker and listener assigning different meanings(speaking different languages, use of jargon)
transactional view of communication
we are always both sources and receivers. ongoing and continuous. does not stop. not an event. you can leave a subject and come back to it another day
communication is a "package of signals"
face to face-many channels at once; verbal and nonverbal support each other; sometimes contradictory messages are sent
mixed messages
place received ina "double bind"
communication is a process of adjustment
no two people use identical signals; identify other persons signals; principle of adjustment is especially important in intercultural situations
communication accommodation
we adjust or accommodateto speaking style of listeners in order to gain a variety of benefits
content message
refers to something external to speaker and listener
relationship message
refers to relationship between partis
punctuation
how to continuous process of communication is divided into causes and effects (parents nag, child goes to room)
objective
independent of anybodys point of view
subjective
only from a persons point of views
symmetrical relationships
two individuals mirror each other's behavior
complementary relationships
two individuals engage in different behaviors and behavior of one serves as stimulus for complementary behavior of the other
inevitable
takes place even though one of the individuals does not think he or she is communicating or does not want to communicate
irreversible
process can only go in one direction
unrepeatable
can never recapture exact same situation that defined a previous communication act
repair
something goes wrong in communication andyou seek to fix it