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17 Cards in this Set

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What two vitamins are important for pre-conception?
- how long whould they be given before conception?
Folate and Choline help to prevent NTDs.
- ideally, 30 days prior to conception.
+ note that egg yolks are a great source of choline.
During pregnancy, when are nutrient reserves particularly important? Intake?

Does EtOH move freely across the placental barrier?
1st trimester

2nd and 3rd trimesters

yes.
total calories per day increase by ~___ during pregnancy?
~300kcal/day
From the following list, name the items that should be increased >1x DRI pre-pregnancy:
- A, C, Cu, D, P, Ca, B-6, iron, B-12, folate, zinc, riboflavin, thiamin, magnesium
C, B-6, iron, B-12, folate, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, Mg.
Re: bones, why can adolescent pregnancy be a risk?
Ca is released from maternal bone stores @ a v. high rate during pregnancy (highest in 3rd trimester). This may decrease eventual bone mass achieved as part of adolescence.
What does Breastfeeding promote via BW?

Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first ___m of life.

Is breastmilk always the same composition?
weight loss.

6m.

no, there are 3 stages:
- colostrum (1st few days, v.high in protein/Antibodies and v's)
- transitional
- mature (occurs about two wks after birth = content varies w/ each feeding.
In general there are 3 types of formula. What are they?
(1) Cow's milk formulas
Most infant formula is made with cow's milk altered to resemble breast milk; most babies do well on cow's milk formula

(2) Soy-based formulas
For babies intolerant or allergic to cow's milk formula or lactose; also useful if desire to exclude animal proteins from your child's diet; babies allergic to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk

(3) Protein hydrolysate formulas
for babies who have a family history of milk or soy allergies; easier to digest/less likely to cause allergic reactions
AAP recommends exclusively and partially breastfed infants receive supplements of ____ shortly after birth.

necessary for formula fed babies?
400 IU/day of vitamin D shortly after birth

no, they contain D.
Healthy babies are born w/ iron stores to last ___m.
6months.
when are most infants ready for the transition to solid foods (complimentary feeding)?
- what should be avoided before age 1?
4-6m range.
- No cow's milk, citrus or honey before age 1
Deficiencies in the following nutrients lead to what sort of compromised fx?
- Ca
- Zn
- A
- Pyridoxine
- Iron
- linear growth
- growth, wound healing, appetitie
- immune fx, skel development
- immune fx, growth
- growth, cog development (psychomotor skills)
Does BMI vary w/ age in children?
yes.
BMI changes substantially with age. After about 1 year of age, BMI-for-age begins to decline and it continues falling during the preschool years until it reaches a minimum around 4 to 6 years of age. Here you see BMI-for-age tracking on the 95th percentile.
The rebound or increase in a child's BMI that occurs after it reaches its lowest point is referred to as what?
- if this is early (before 4-6y) what effect might that have?

do we *know* for sure that these variations in body mass index are due to adipose tiss?
"adiposity" rebound. This is a normal pattern of growth that occurs in all children.
- increase risk of adult obesity.

no, could have something to do w/ lean mass or bone.
>95th BMI-per-age = ?
<5?

85-95th?
obese
underweight

overweight
What special concerns about nutrition are present in CF?
- is lung fx linked to higher BW?
- Usually require ___% (or more) of normal caloric intake for age and gender to prevent underweight
- other dietary managements?
Pancreatic insufficiency is common, causing maldigestion and malabsorption of fat and fat soluble vitamins

- yes, A balanced, high-calorie diet with salt, fat, and protein ensures normal growth, promotes good lung function
- 120-150%
- they, in general, can eat a bunch more of fat and protein. don't need quite as many carbs. their Na intake is unrestricted. Sugar is unrestricted.
What foods are gluten free?

some overlooked sources of gluten?
corn, rice, potato flour, flax, soy, amaranth, millet.

beer, soy sauce, breadking, marinades, imitation bacon/seafood, playdough, etc.
Diet for kids w/ CKD?
- what is most affected?
- does protein restriction delay dz progression?
+ in adults?

- concerns w/ dialysis?
- hemodialysis restrictions?
usually unrestricted because growth and WG are concerns w/ CKD.
- Na, P, K, protein, calories, fluid.
- no current evidence
+ low energy and high proten is associated w/ worsening fx in adults.

- P restriction may be needed (dairy); increase protein, frequent small meals may help.
- Na, K, Fluids, P