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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Huxley described Brave New World as a negative utopia, that is, a genre best defined as a literary inversion of the principal conventions of its Wellsian opposite.
Direct quote, Page 36
Baker, Robert S. Twayne’s Masterwork Studies: Brave New World History, Science, and Dystopia. Twayne Publishers, Boston. 1990
In such a culture, individual identity is only permissible within a social and collectivist setting (community); moreover, within a community that is fixed and unchanging (stability). Such a technocratic ideal is, as Huxley argued, a form of “spiritual self-mutilation,” and thus the laboratory, dedicated to birth, is depicted as a place of death and genetic deformation. The light is “frozen, dead, a ghost,” while the lab technicians wear “corpse-colored rubber.” Outside it is summer but within all is “wintriness” (1). The laboratory is a scientific womb, displacing the mythical maternal nature with the colder fertilizing embrace of scientific instrumentalism.
Direct Quote, Page 81
Baker, Robert S. Twayne’s Masterwork Studies: Brave New World History, Science, and Dystopia. Twayne Publishers, Boston. 1990
The Director is a rendition of Doctor Victor Frankenstein, (conducting the production of a genetically modified race.
Summary, Page 81
Baker, Robert S. Twayne’s Masterwork Studies: Brave New World History, Science, and Dystopia. Twayne Publishers, Boston. 1990
The social classes (Alphas Betas etc) create a social pyramid hierarchy and conformist society.
Summary, Page 82
Baker, Robert S. Twayne’s Masterwork Studies: Brave New World History, Science, and Dystopia. Twayne Publishers, Boston. 1990
The Director says that a love of nature keeps no factories busy. In this saying, he says that there is no room for creative thought, everything needs to be controlled.
Summary, Page 83
Baker, Robert S. Twayne’s Masterwork Studies: Brave New World History, Science, and Dystopia. Twayne Publishers, Boston. 1990
Ford spied on his workers to learn of any moral deficiencies or weaknesses which were punishable with pay cuts. Talking was not allowed at work and spies were everywhere. There was no freedom and a man was fired for laughing at work. Ford stated that history is not important and the only important history is the “history we make today”. The T on the cover of the life of Henry Ford book shows that it replaces the bible. (Our Ford rhymes with our Lord). Ford is the idol of this society because they believe in this rigid structure and dehumanization. Fords assembly line is comparable to the one in the Director’s Laboratory.
Summary, Page 84-86
Baker, Robert S. Twayne’s Masterwork Studies: Brave New World History, Science, and Dystopia. Twayne Publishers, Boston. 1990
History is not rejected because it does not matter, though it is described as bunk. History is rejected because it distracts people from the new. Because of this, anything that is not "beneficial" to society is not mended, but is rather replaced. Fixing things and telling of the past suggests that things can be made better and change, which can spark social reformations and movements.
Booker, M. Keith. The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature: Fiction as Social Criticism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Questia. 5 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14141323>.
page 63
summary
Walter Benjamin argues that a significant social concept that death is insignificant plays a large role in "Utopian society". The process of aging and tragedy of death are not eminent in society which promotes the concept of a whole where individuals are not important. This is reinforced in the rigid class system of the society.
Booker, M. Keith. The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature: Fiction as Social Criticism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Questia. 5 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14141323>.
page 65 summary
People are manipulated into believing that they rely on the government for things such as soma which are really distributed to ensure happiness and contentment, oblivion and naivety.
Booker, M. Keith. The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature: Fiction as Social Criticism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Questia. 5 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14141323>.
65 summary
People are given the illusion of freedom because the government does not directly control language. The society that they have created enforces the dialogs and social customs
Booker, M. Keith. The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature: Fiction as Social Criticism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Questia. 5 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14141323>.
page 60 summary
The people do not know anything other than what they are provided with. John has read Shakespeare and has been privy to different passionate themes such as jealousy (which he displayed in his feelings toward Pope and her mother resembling Hamlet) and love. Books are scarce because they are dangerous in that they enlighten and inform the reader of a new world filled with passion and emotion
Booker, M. Keith. The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature: Fiction as Social Criticism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Questia. 5 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14141323>.
page 60 summary
People are not taught language that has any content and quote phrases that they are taught. This inability to express emotions or needs ensures conformity and obedience.
Booker, M. Keith. The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature: Fiction as Social Criticism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Questia. 5 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14141323>.
page 59 summary
Conditioning through pain as Alex goes through makes him learn not to like and do certain things. This happens in Brave New World with young children and with Alex when he is made sick as he watches violent films. This takes away their free will.
Booker, M. Keith. Dystopian Literature: A Theory and Research Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Questia. 5 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9600209>.
summary pg 98
Language in a clockwork orange signifies communication and understanding. Alex and his friends use nadsats to talk and this is taken away from Alex in an attempt to reform him.
Booker, M. Keith. Dystopian Literature: A Theory and Research Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Questia. 5 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9600209>.
summary pg 94
(handmaids tale)
language is also restricted in this book to ensure compliance. Women are not allowed to converse on their walks other than standard greetings programmed into their minds in training. Scrabble is not allowed either and things are shown as pictures rather than words.
Booker, M. Keith. Dystopian Literature: A Theory and Research Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Questia. 5 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9600209>.
summary pg 80
People in dystopia societies are not permitted to be extremely close because relationships such as these (sexual) lead to passion and desire. This is displayed in Brave New World when sex is used as a recreational activity and orgies are required. It is also present in the Handmaids tale when sex is required for procreation and not personal. In fact, the act is so impersonal that the wives are watching.
Booker, M. Keith. Dystopian Literature: A Theory and Research Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Questia. 5 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9600209>.
summary pg 79
Control of language also leads to control of society as a whole. Supression of language is essentially to leave people without the tools to entertain or think for themselves.
Sisk, David W. Transformations of Language in Modern Dystopias. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997. Questia. 5 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=28027482>.
pg 2 summary
Alexandra Aldridge argues that dystopia is a persons perspective on a utopia. Utopias strive to create the perfect society, and a dystopia is criticism concerning individual suppression.
Sisk, David W. Transformations of Language in Modern Dystopias. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997. Questia. 5 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=28027482>.
pg 6 summary
topic
to maintain a EUTOPIAN SOCIETY, there cannot be freedom of thought speech or creativity. The suppression of the human spirit is what maintains an unquestioned government. IGNORANCE and innocence are the keys to obedience. Therefore, the more a society is united, the less freedom there is, and there in lies the dystopia.
theme1
illusion is the key to obedience as well. The illusion that there is freedom or happiness/safety creates a sense of gratefulness
the brainwashing becomes so eminent in the society that the government can allow some space, indirectly controlling the people
"The family unit encourages ideas of "mine" and "not mine" and breeds strong emotions. Passions, in many utopian societies, are considered dangerous to stability and therefore antagonistic to the public good. The Controller stresses this idea to the students: "'No pains have been spared to make your lives emotionally easy -- to preserve you, so far as that is possible, from having emotions at all'"
quote pg 97
Matter, William. "6 On Brave New World." No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. Ed. Eric S. Rabkin, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1983. 94-109. Questia. 14 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10620304>.
Huxley shows his readers that the creative spirit -- the right to think and act as individuals -- must be forfeited if mankind follows his machines into utopia.
quote page 97
Matter, William. "6 On Brave New World." No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. Ed. Eric S. Rabkin, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1983. 94-109. Questia. 14 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10620304>.
The Savage's comment underlines a central theme in Brave New World. While the fiction of a perfect world is interesting, one should be mindful of reaching that utopia -- of the very concept of progress; for, once in the "ideal" commonwealth, the individual may find a wide disparity between his dreams and reality. Utopianism, Huxley feels, "runs the risk of becoming ruthless, of liquidating the people it happens to find inconvenient now for the sake of the people who are going, hypothetically, to be so much better and happier and more intelligent in the year 2000." 4 One should live for the present -the "here and now" Huxley calls it in Island -- rather than aiming one's sights toward some future perfect that progress will provide. John's discovery that the Other Place must censor art, restrain individuality, do away with love, and prohibit innovation in order to maintain stability reminds him that the myth and the reality of utopia are very different indeed.
quote page 101
Matter, William. "6 On Brave New World." No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. Ed. Eric S. Rabkin, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1983. 94-109. Questia. 14 June 2007 <http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10620304>.
def of utopia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utopia