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39 Cards in this Set

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Name four techniques that can be used to image the oropharyngeal region
ultrasound, videoendoscopy, fluroscopy, scintigraphy
Ultrasound studies of the oral cavity have been used to: (3 things)
1. observe tongue functon
2. measure oral transit times
3. motion of the hyoid bone
1. function of:
2. measures _ transit time
3. motion of __
Can ultrasound visualize the pharynx? y/n
no, becuase the pharynx has a mis of tissue types
Ultrasound looks only at ____ stage of degluttion
oral, especially oral tongue function
Videoendoscopy examines the _____ of the oral cavity and pharynx from _____ AND examines the phayrnx and larynx ______ and _____ swallowing
What does FEES stand for?
Flexible fiberoptic examination of swallowing
Endoscopy does NOT visualize the ____ stage of swallowing.
Videoendoscopy makes it difficult to define the exact nature of a patient's ________ disorder and the _________ of treatment strategies
What is the advantage to videoendoscopy?
no radiation exposure
Videoendoscopy allows the clinician to observe: (3 things)
vocal folds

assess oropharyneal anatomy

assess pt's ability to use airway closure maneuvers
What is the supraglottic swallow?
easy breath hold
What is the super-supraglottic swallow?
effortful breath hold
What is a major disadvantage to cineflourography? (two things)
Requires more radiation exposure than videofloroscopy and requires film development (no immediate feedback)
Videofluoroscopic studies provide information on: (4 things)
bolus transit times
mobility problems
amount of aspiration
etiology of aspiration
Videofluoroscopy enbales visualization of (3 things)
oral activity during chewing and the oral stage of swallowing

the triggering of the pharyngeal swallow in relation to position of the bolus

the motor aspects of the pharyngeal wall, including movements of the larynx, hyoid, tongue base, pharyngeal walls, and cricopharyngeal region
Videofluoroscopy does NOT enable measurement of:
pressures generated during swallowing
Videofluoroscopy DOES enable an indirect observation of:
pressure through the speed of movement of the bolus in relation to structural motion
The lateral radiographic view is used initially to assess: (2 things)
transit times or speed and efficiency of bolus movement

better observation of aspiration
What is another name for the radiographic study?
modified barium swallow
A MBS determines:
WHY a person aspirates
Strategies implemented after dx include:
changes in head or body posture

heightening sensory input prior to swallow

swallowing tx techniques designed to change specific aspects of swallow physiology
Scintigraphy is
a nucleur medicine test in which the patient swallows measured amounts of radioactive substance
Scintigraphy measures
the amount of aspiration and residue
Scintigraphy does NOT allow the clinician to visualize
the physiology of the mouth and pharynx (can't pinpoint the etiology)
Scintigraphy can be dianogstic for:
esophageal aspects of swallowing, esp. gastrosesophageal reflux disease
How often is the patient scanned when using scinitgraphy?
15 to 30 minutes for several hours
Manometry is
the pressure generated at specific locations in the pharynx
Electromyography is
amount of electrical energy genreated by muscle contractions
Name two types of nonimaging procedures
Surface electromyography records infromation from
the muscles of the floor of the mouth
What is the Mendelsohn maneuver and what is it designed to improve?
burping; designed to improve the extent and duration of laryngeal elevation during the swallow which improves the duration and width of the ues during swallow
What does electroglottography (EGG) track?
vocal fold movement; it records the imedance changes as the vocal folds move toward and away from each other during phonation;
it also tracks laryngeal elevation
Define Valsalva
effortful bearing down with a breath hold
What are normal transit times for the esophagus
What are the three places for the pharyngeal manometry?
base of tongue
in the cervical esophagus
What is the best instrumental procedure to understand pharyngeal anatomy (ie in the case of a postsurgical oropharyngeal cancer patient)?
rigid videoendoscopy
What is the best instrumental procedure for defining the PRESENCE (not cause) of aspiration of saliva?
FEES or flexible fiberoptic videoendoscopy
What is the best instrumental procedure for understanding pharyngeal physiology in relation to symptoms such as aspiration?
What is the best instrumental procedure for finding the pressure generated during swallow?
The pharyngeal manometry in combonation with videofluoroscy