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28 Cards in this Set

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ecology
the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment
abiotic
An environment consists of two parts. The _______ part of the environment includes all of the physical factors--such as water, soil, light, and temperature--that affect organisms living in a particular area.
population
A _____________________ is a group of individuals of the same species that live together inthe same area as the same time. (For example, all of the seaside sparrows that live together in a salt marsh are members of a _____________.)
biotic
An environment consists of two parts. The ______ part of the environment is all of the organisms that live together and itneract with one another.
community
A _________________ consists of all the puplation of different species that live and interact in an area. The different populations ina ________ depend on each other for food, shelter, and many other things.
ecosystem
An ______________ is made up of a community of organisms and its abiotic environment. An ecologist would examine how temperature, rain, and soil characteristics affect the organisms in the ___________.
biosphere
The _____________ is the part of Earth where life exists. It extends from the deepest part of the ocean to very high in the atmosphere. It includes every ecosystem.
herbivore
A _________________ is a consumer that eats plants. In the prairie ecosystem, grasshoppers, gophers, prairie dogs, bison and antelope are herbivores.
carnivore
A ____________ is a consumer that eats animals. In the prairie ecosystem, carnivores are coyotes, hawks, badgers, and owls.
omnivores
___________ are consumers that eat both plants and animals. In the prairie ecosystem, the mouse eats insects, scorpions, lizards, and grass seeds.
scavengers
____________ are animals that feed on the bodies of dead animals. In the prairie ecosystem, the vulture is a _______________.
food chain
A _____________ represents how the energy in food flows from one organism to the next. Example: Plants are eaten by a prairie dog who is eaten by a coyote, who is eaten by a vulture.
food web
The many energy pathways possible are more accurately shown by a ___________. Example: Rabbits are food for foxes and owls. Foxes and owls are never food for rabbits.
energy pyramid
The loss of energy at each level of the food chaini can be represented by an ________________. Example: In a river ecosystem, water plants would be on the lowest level. Insect Larvae eat the water plants. Bluegill fish eat the insect larvae. Largemouth basses eat the bluegill fish. Only energy stored in the tissues of an organism can be transferred to the next level. The top level is getting the least energy.
habitat
An organism's ___________ is the environment in which it lives. Example: The wolf's habitat in US includes wilderness areas in Montana, Washington, Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Canada.
niche
An organisms's way of life within an ecosystem is its _______. An organisms's ______ includes its habitat, its food, its predators, and the organisms with which it competes. It also includes how the organism affects and is affected by abiotic factors in its envirnomnet, such as temperature, light, and moisture.
carrying capacity
The largest population that a given envirnoment can support over a long period of time is the environment's ____________________. When there are more deer than there is food, the deer will die off. It there is plenty of food for deer, the number deer will increase.
prey
Organisms eat each other. The organism that is eaten is called the ______. When a bird eats a worm, the worm is the _______.
predator
Organisms eat each other. The organism that eats is called the ________________.
When a bird eats a worm, the bird is the ____________.
symbiosis
___________ is a close, long-term association between two or more species. The individuals in a symbiotic relationship can benefit from, be unaffected by, or be harmed by the relationship.
mutualism
A symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit is called ____________. Example: Corls provide a home for algae. Algae produce food used by the corals.
commensalism
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected is called _____________. Remoras attach to a shark and feed on scraps of good left by sharks. The ramoras are helped; the shark is unaffected.
parasitism
A symbiotic association in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed is called _________________. A tick is a parasite; the tick is fed by the dog and the dog is harmed.
coevolution
_____________ is a long-term change that takes place in two species because of their close interactions with one another. Example: Certain flowers have evolved so that they have the perfect amount of nectar for hummingbirds. Hummingbirds' beaks have coevolved to fit into the flowers to reach the nectar.
Four types of consumers
1)herbivores
2)carnivores
3)omnivores
4)scavengers
two kinds of environments
1)biotic
2)abiotic
5 levels of environment
1)biosphere--contains ecosytetms
2)ecosystems--contains communities
3)communities--contains populations
4)populations--contains organisms
5)organisms
3 kinds of symbiotic relationships
1)Mutualism--both helped
2)Commensalism--one helped, other unaffected
3)Parasitism--one helped, other harmed