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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
mesenchymal condensation is __________
blastymal skeleton
_________ takes place in the core of the pelvis and lower limb
mesenchymal condensation (BLASTYMAL SKELETON)
skeletal elements are primarily derived from ___________ with the exception of the mesoderm forming the ________ which is from the ____________
SOMATOPLEURE (somatic mesoderm)


like all vertebrae is from the sclerotome portion of the somite
what happpens in the 4TH weeek fo hip development
the blastymal skeleton begins to condense out in the form of an increase in the number of cells.

it is still soft
what happpens in the 5TH weeek fo hip development
dense condensation of mesodermal tissue

primary site where bones, joints, and ligaments will eventually develop out of
condensations in hip form in what directions
rostral to caudal and promimal to distal gradiants -- hip to foot
condensation of mesenchyme

initiation of cartilage formation

begins hip formation
at the core of the blastymal skeleton, it is this that undergoes initial chondrification
when does chondrification begin
chondrification centers in the hip
One center in ILEUM, PUBIS, and ISCHIUM.

quickly followed by center in the FEMUR
chondrification at the periphery of the mesenchymal condensation.

It is the parts of this developing membrane that connect the two bones, across the joint, that eventually give rise to JOINT CAPSUL and SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
how does obturator foramen develop
fusion of the cartilagenous positions of the inferior pubic ramus and the ischial ramus. This closes around birth and ossifies together sometime after puberty.
OSSIFICATION of the femur
second bone in the body to begin OSSIFICATION.

begins during the 7th week of IU life

SHAFT(7th week)
HEAD (around birth)
3 primary ossification centers

1)ILIUM (8th-9th week IU)
2)ISCHIUM (3rd month IU)
3)PUBIS (4th-5th mo IU)
ischiopubic ramus fuses
7-8 years post natal life
Around 8-9 years e secondary ossification sites appear in acetabulum. Where are they
1) ilium
2) ischium
3) pubis
growth of the 3 secodnary ossification sites in the acetabulum gives rise to
TRIRADIATE CARTILAGE - a large 3 rayed cartilage (Y shaped) which still seperates the ilium, ischium & pubis
when do the secondary ossification sites in the acetabulum start to grow outward making the acetabulum deeper
during the development of the acetabulum if first increases in ______ and then _______
breadth and then depth
when does FEMUR of the triradiate cartilage occur
18-19 years
secondary ossifications in the femur

when does total fusion to the shaft occur
head (end of 1st year
greater trochanter (4th year)
lesser trocanter (puberty)

18th-19th year
what happens to remaining hyalin cartilage as secondary ossification centers near completion
retained as articular cartilage
mesoderm existing between the early cartilaginous blastemas for the acetabulum and head of the femur give rise to what
all other sx of the joint, including labrum, ligament of the head of the femur, and synovial membrane
the joint capsule derives from __________ which was derived from _________.
the original perichondrium
cartilaginous blastema
what layer connects the two bones that are actually articulating and forms tha actual joint capsule itself
cartilaginous blastema
ligaments supporting the hip joint, including iliofemoral, ishiofemoral, and pubofemoral develop from what
mesoderm external to the cartilaginous primordium of the femur and hip bone.
in neweborn hip joint is ______
head of femur is critical in deepining hip joint T/F
head of femur out of place can cause the hip joint to develop incorrectly (acetabulum may be flattened) or hip joint can be dislocated T/F


male female ratio

which side is more commonly affected
1-10/1000 cases


left (20% bilateral)
dysplastic acetabulum
abnormal sx. can lead to dislocation
CDH - why
fetal life and newborn, ligaments are somewhat lax.
CDH- more common with
Cesarean sections & early postnatal periods (few days after birth)

motion testing is helpful but be careful
Dislocations are usually ______ and _______
posterior / lateral
dislocations without treatment
femoral head and neck can become deformed

acetabulum not adequately deep

pseudoarthrosis - "new joint" forms

mm develop shorter rxing motion.
Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency (PFFD)
proximal part of femoral cartilage fails to develop adequatly, so part or all fo prox femur is absent.