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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
inferior courts
the lower federal courts, beneath the Supreme Court
constitutional courts
court made up of 15 judges to serve short life term until 65 created after USSR
special courts
all courts in the judicial system that have limited appealiated jurisdiction power
jurisdiction
authority of a court to hear a case
exclusive jurisdiction
power of the federal courts alone to hear certain cases
concurrent juristdiction
power shared by federal and state courts to hear certain cases
Plaintiff
in civil law, the party who brings a suit or some other legal action against another (the defendant) in court
Defendant
in a civil suit, the person against whom a court action is brought by the plaintiff; in a criminal case, the person charged with the crime
original jurisdiction
power of a court to hear a case first, before any other court
appellate jurisdiction
the authority of a court to review decisions of inferior courts
senatorial courtesy
custom that the senate will not approve a presidential appointment opposed by a majority party senator from the state in which the appointee would serve
judicial restraint
decisions are based on grounds that have been previously been previously defined as judicial precedent rather than achieving public good
judicial activism
decisions are based on the grounds of achieving public welfare rather than judicial precedent
criminal case
a case in which a defendant is tried for committing a crime as defined by the law
civil case
a case involving a noncriminal matter such as a contract dispute or a claim of patent infringement
grand jury
formal device by which a person con be accused of a serious crime
petit jury
the jury of approximately 12 people that are in the court room during the hearing and decide guilty or not guilty
court of appeals
A court to which appeals are made on points of law resulting from the judgment of a lower court
docket
courts lists of cases to be heard
judicial review
the power of a court to determine the constitutionality of a governmental action
Writ of certiorari
an order by a higher court directing a lower court to send up the record in a given case for review
certificate
a method of putting a case before the Supreme Court; used when a lower court is not clear about the procedure or rule of law that should apply in a case and asks the Supreme court to certify the answer to a specific question
Majority opinion
officially called the opinion of the court; announces the court’s decision in a case and sets out the reasons upon which it is based
Precedent
court decision that stands as an example to be followed in future, similar cases
concurring opinion
written explanation of the views of one or more judges who support a decision reached by a majority of the court, but wish to add or emphasize a point that was not made in the majority decision
Dissenting opinion
written explanation of the views of one or more judges who disagree with a decision reached by a majority of the court
Redress
satisfaction of a claim payment
Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces
exercises worldwide appellate jurisdiction over members of the military of the United States on active duty and other persons subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice.
Courts martial
a court composed of military personnel, for the trial of those accused of violating military law
Civilian tribunal
a court operating as part of the judicial branch, entirely separate from the military establishment
Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims
exercised worldwide appellate jurisdiction over veterans and their claims