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81 Cards in this Set

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central nervous system medications (7)
Analgesics and antagonists.
Anesthetics.
Anti-anxiety and sedative hypnotic drugs.
Anti-seizure or anti-epileptic drugs.
Central nervous system stimulants.
Psychotherapeutic medications.
Parkinson's medications.
Which of these drug types do we use in the field?
MOST OF THEM!
The NS is broken into many parts (2)
Central NS.
Peripheral NS.
peripheral NS (2)
Autonomic NS.
Somatic NS.
autonomic NS (2)
Sympathetic NS.
Parasympathetic NS.
central nervous system
All nerves that originate and terminate within the brain and spinal cord.
peripheral nervous system
All nervous tissue outside of CNS.
autonomic nervous system
Controls involuntary "automatic" functions.
somatic nervous system
Controls voluntary "motor" functions.
sympathetic nervous system
"Fight or flight."
parasympathetic nervous system
"Feed or breed."
primitive brain (archipallium)
Self preservation, aggression.
intermediate brain (paleopallium), limbic system
Emotions.
rational brain, neocortex (neopallium)
Intellectual tasks.
Brain accounts for _% of a person's body weight, and it receives __% of the total resting cardiac output (___mL/min).
2, 20, 750
Brain is reponsible for?
Everything.
spinal cord: 2 principle functions
Impulse conduction.
Reflex integration.
impulse conduction provides?
Means of communication through tracts of white matter.
Ascending tracts conduct impulses from the __________ _____________________________ to the _____.
peripheral sensory receptors of the body, brain
Descending tracts conduct motor impulses from the _____ to the _______ and ______.
brain, muscles, glands
reflex integration
Specific nerve pathways enable some movements to be reflexive rather than initiated voluntarily by the brain.
T or F: Reflexive movements are confined to just skeletal muscle.
F
reflex integration involved with (8)
heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, digestion, swallowing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting
analgesics and antagonists (5)
Opioid agonist.
Nonopioid analgesics.
Opioid antagonists.
Adjunct medications.
Opioid agonist-antagonists.
opioid agonist
Chemicals similar to opium.
opioid agonist (2)
Morphine.
Meperidine.
nonopioid analgesics
Affect the production of prostiglandins and cyclooxygenase, both important mediators in the activation of the pain response.
nonopioid analgesics (3)
Salicylates (ASA).
NSAIDS (Ketoriac).
Para-aminphenol derivates (acetominiphen).
opioid antagonists
Reverse the effects of opioid drugs (naloxone).
adjunct medications
Given concurrently to enhance effects.
adjunct medications (2)
Benzodiazepines.
Antihistamines (Promethazine).
benzodiazepines (3)
Diazepam.
Lorazepam.
Midazolam.
opioid agonist-antagonists
Displays both agonist and antagonist properties (nalbuphine).
Anesthetics induce a loss of _________/____.
sensation, pain
Anesthetics tend to cause ___________, ___, and ______________ depression.
respiratory, CNS, cardiovascular
Anesthetics are given via __________ or _________.
inhalation, injection
As a class, anesthetics tend to effect ______________.
depolarization
Anesthetic inhalation agents tend to ________ the ability of an action potential to propagate, thus decreasing _________ (example).
decrease, sensation (nitrous oxide)
Anesthetic IV meds are usually used to assist __________.
intubation
Local administration of anesthetics assists with things like ________. Action potential again _________, interfering with the propagation of a signal to the _____ (example).
suturing, decreased, brain (lidocaine)
anti-anxiety and sedative-hypnotic drugs
Decrease anxiety, induce amnesia, and assist sleeping.
anti-anxiety and sedative-hypnotic drug classes (2)
Benzodiazepines.
Barbiturates.
T or F: Alcohol fits under the category of anti-anxiety and sedative-hypnotic drugs.
T
Anti-anxiety and sedative-hypnotic drugs hyperpolarize the membrane of ___, which _________ response to stimuli.
CNS, stimuli
____ is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS so the receptor sites are plentiful.
GABA
Receptor sites for GABA are located?
On proteins that are associated with Cl- channels in the cell membrane.
When the GABA receptor sites are stimulated, the Cl- channels open and the inside of the cell becomes ________, thus causing the cell to need a larger stimulus to __________.
negative, depolarize
Benzos only ________ the effectiveness of GABA while barbs actually _____ GABA.
increase, mimic
Antagonist for benzos is __________.
flumazenil
________ are treated through several mechanisms.
seizures
Most common seizure treatment is to ________ the influx of Na+ and Ca+ through channels in the _______________ (2 examples).
decrease, neural membrane (phenytoin, carbamazepine)
anti-seizure or anti-epileptic drugs (3)
Benzos.
Barbs.
Hydantoins.
central nervous system stimulants
These drugs increase the release or effectiveness of either excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters.
central nervous system stimulant classes (3)
Amphetamines.
Methylphenidates.
Methylxanthines.
Amphetamines also include _______________ and _________________.
methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine
Amphetamines increase the release of ______ and ________.
norepi, dopamine
Amphetamine side effects (7)
tachycardia, hypertension, dysrhythmias, seizures, insomnia, hallucinations, agitation
methylphenidates
Most commonly prescribed for ADHD (Ritalin); different chemical from amphetamine but works similarly.
methylxanthines (3)
caffeine, aminophylline, theophylline
mehtylxanthines
Possibly block adenosine receptors and inhibit phosphodiesterase (cAMP).
Methylxanthines cause _______________.
bronchodilation
psychotherapeutic medications
Treat mental illness.
mental illnesses (3)
Schizophrenia.
Depression.
Bipolar disorder.
Psychotherapeutic medications either increase or decrease the release of the ________ neurotransmitters (3 examples).
monamine (norepi, dpoamine, serotonin)
antipsychotic medication classes (2)
Neuroleptics.
Phenothyanzines and butyrophenones (haloperidol).
antipsychotic medications
Block dopamine, mucarinic ACh, histamine, and alpha1 in the CNS.
Therapeutic actions of antipsychotic medications come from blocking ________ and side effects are caused by the blocking of ___________________.
dopamine, the other receptors
antipsychotic medication side effects (3)
Extrapyramidal symptoms (cholinergic blockade, treat with benadryl).
Orthostatic hypotension (alpha1 blockade, treat with fluids).
Sedation.
antidepressants (3)
TCAs.
SSRIs.
MAOIs.
TCAs
Block reuptake of norepi and serotonin; also have cholinergic effects.
SSRIs
Block reuptake of serotonin.
MAOIs
Inhibit the breakdown of monoamines.
Parkinson's medications
Treatment trys to restore the balance of dopamine and ACh in the CNS by increasing the stimulation of dopamine receptors and decreasing the stimulation of ACh receptors.
Parkinson's medications (3)
Levodopa.
Benztropine.
Benadryl.
levodopa
Sinemet is a preparation with carbidopa which allows levodopa tp be metabolized within the CNS.
benztropine
Given as an ACh blocker.
benadryl
Given for antihistaminic properties.
Parkinson's Disease patients have a ______ than normal blood flow to the basal ganglia on the opposite side to the effected limbs.
higher
L-dopa _______ the blood flow to the basal ganglia but over time can ________ the local metabolic rate.
reduces, increase
In Parkinson's Disease there is a lack of communication between the _______ and ________ lobes and the _______ and _________ lobes.
frontal, parietal, frontal, occipital.
In Parkinson's Disease glucose metabolism is _________ generally over the brain by __% compared to a normal person of similar age.
decreased, 18