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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The philosophy and practice of healing in which the diagnosis or treatment is based on trancelike states, either on the part of the healer (shaman) or the patient
A healer whose diagnosis or treatment of patients is based at least in part on trances. These trances are frequently induced by hallucinogenic drugs
Ebers Papyrus
An Egyptian document, dated approximately 1500 B.C., containing more than 800 prescriptions for common ailments and diseases
Any change in a person's condition after taking a drug, based solely on that person's beliefs about the drug rather than on any physical effects of the drug
The philosophy of exerting as little governmental control and regulation as possible
Patent Medicine
A drug or combination of drugs sold through peddlers, shops, or mail-order advertisements
Business establishments that sold liquor illegally during the Prohibition era
A period between 1920 and 1933 in the United States when alcohol manufacture and sale was illegal
French Connection
A term referring to the supply route of heroin in the 1960s from Turkey (where opium poppies were grown) to port cities in France (where heroin was manufactured) to cities in the United States (where heroin was distributed)
Moral Model
an explanation for drug use in which drug-taking behavior is attributed to personal inadequacies, overindulgence, a weakness of will, or other serious character flaw
Nucleus accumbens
a region of the brain considered to be responsible for the reinforcing effects of several drugs of abuse
Psychoanalytic explanations
theoretical explanations based upon the writings of Sigmund Freud and those influenced by him. In terms of drug use and abuse, psychoanalytic concepts include subconscious processes that develop in early childhood, a fixation on the oral stage of development, expressions of power, and self-loathing
Chemical substances that a neuron uses to communicate information at the synapse
Behavioral theory
an explanation of behavior based upon the effect of reinforcement on learned responses to one's environment
In sociological terms, feelings of frustration and alienation when individuals see themselves as not being able to meet the demands of society. Anomie theory is sometimes referred to as strain theory
Social Control Theory
a sociological theory of drug use based on weakened social bonds between an individual and social entities such as family, religious affiliation, school, and community. Social control theory is sometimes referred to as bonding theory
Differential Association theory
a sociological theory of drug use based upon the premise that drug-taking behavior is learned in interactions and communications with other individuals
a subdivision within a dominant culture that has its own norms, beliefs, and values. An example is a drug subculture that provides the social bonding for continued drug use and abuse
Labeling Theory
a sociological theory of drug use that emphasizes the process by which a drug user internalizes a newly acquired label of deviance and continues a pattern of drug-taking behavior that is based on the expectations of others
Primary deviance
nonconformist behavior associated with drug experimentation. It is temporary, exploratory, and easily concealed from others
Secondary Deviance
persistent nonconformist behavior by an individual who has been labeled as deviant and whose deviant behavior is based upon expectations of others
Biopsychosocial Model
a theoretical perspective on drug use that recognizes the biological, psychological, and sociological factors underlying drug-taking behavior and encourages an integrated approach toward drug-abuse treatment
Risk factors
factors in an individual's life that increase the likelihood of involvement with drugs
Protective factors
factors in an individual's life that decrease the likelihood of involvement with drugs and reduce the impact that any risk factor might have