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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Psychoactive drugs
drugs that affect feelings, thoughts, perceptions, or behavior
Illicit drugs
Drugs whose manufacture, sale, or possession is illegal
Licit drugs
Drugs whose manufacture, sale, or possession is legal
Drug Dependence
A condition in which an individual feels a compulsive need to continue taking a drug. In the process, the drug assumes an increasingly central role in the individual's life
Drug
a chemical substance that, when taken into the body, alters the structure or functioning of the body in some way, excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning
Instrumental use
Referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes a drug for a specific purpose other than getting "high"
Recreational use
Referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes a drug only to get "high" or achieve some pleasurable effect
Drug Misuse
Drug-taking behavior in which a prescription or nonprescription drug is used inappropriately
Drug Abuse
Drug-taking behavior resulting in some form of physical, mental, or social impairment
Intravenous (i.v.)
into a vein
Intramuscular (i.m.)
Into a muscle
Subcutaneous (s.c. or sub-Q)
underneath the skin
Intranasal
applied to the mucous membranes of the nose
Sublingual
applied under the tongue
Transdermal patch
a device attached to the skin that slowly delivers the drug through skin absorption
Biotransformation
the process of changing the molecular structure of a drug into forms that make it easier to be excreted from the body
Metabolite
A by-product resulting from the biotransformation process
Elimination half-life
The length of time it takes for a drug to be reduced to 50 percent of its equilibrium level in the bloodstream
Latency Period
An interval of time during which the blood levels of a drug are not yet sufficient for a drug effect to be observed
Synergism
The property of a drug interaction in which the combination effect of two drugs exceeds the effect of either drug administered alone
Potentiation
the property of a drug interaction in which one drug combined with another drug produces an effect when one of the drugs alone would have no effect
Tolerance
The capacity of a drug to produce a gradually diminished physiological or psychological effect upon repeated administrations of the drug at the same dose level
Behavioral Tolerance
The process of drug tolerance that is linked to drug-taking behavior occurring consistently in the same surroundings or under the same circumstances. Aka conditioned tolerance
Cross-tolerance
A phenomenon in which the tolerance that results from the chronic use of one drug induces a tolerance effect with regard to a second drug that has not been used before
Placebo
latin term translated "I will please." Any inert substance that produces a psychological or physiological reaction
Double-blind
A procedure in drug research in which neither the individual administering nor the individual receiving a chemical substance knows whether the substance is the drug being evaluated or an active placebo
Physical Dependence
A model of drug dependence based on the idea that the drug abuser continues the drug-taking behavior to avoid the consequences of physical withdrawal symptoms
Psychological Dependence
A model of drug dependence based on the idea that the drug abuser is motivated by a craving for the pleasurable effects of the drug
Substance Dependence
A diagnostic term used in clinical psychology and psychiatry that identifies an individual with significant signs of a dependent relationship upon a psychoactive drug
Substance Abuse
A diagnostic term used in clinical psychology and psychiatry that identifies an individual who continues to take a psychoactive drug despite the fact that the drug-taking behavior creates specific problems for that individual
Toxicity
The physical or psychological harm that a drug might present to the user
Dose
The quantity of the drug that is taken into the body, typically measured in terms of milligrams or micrograms
Acute Toxicity
The physical or psychological harm a drug might present to the user immediately or soon after the drug is ingested into the body
Dose-response curve
An S-shaped graph showing the increasing probability of a certain drug effect as the dose level rises
Effective dose
The minimal dose of a particular drug necessary to produce the intended drug effect in a given percentage of the population
Lethal Dose
the minimal dose of a particular drug capable of producing death in a given percentage of the population
Therapeutic index
A measure of a drug's relative safety for use, computed by the ratio of the lethal dose for 50 percent of the population over the effective dose for 50 percent of the population
Margin of safety
The ration of a lethal dose for 1 percent of the population to the effective dose for 99 percent of the population
Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)
A federal program in which metropolitan hospitals report the incidence of drug-related lethal and non-lethal emergencies
ED episode
An occasion on which a person visits an emergency department (ED) for a purpose that is related to the use of an illicit drug or the nonmedical use of a licit drug
ED mention
A substance that is recorded during a drug-related ED episode. Up to four drugs (including alcohol) can be reported in each episode. The number of ED episodes exceeds the number of patients seeking ED treatment, because a patient may receive emergency treatment on multiple occasions
ME mention
A substance that is recorded in the medical examiner's report following a drug-related death. Up to six drugs (including alcohol) can be reported
Polydrug Use
Drug-taking behavior involving more than one licit or illicit drug simultaneously. Also referred to as multiple-substance use
Chronic Toxicity
The physical or psychological harm a drug might cause over a long period
Dietary Supplements
Commercial preparations derived from vitamins, amino acids, or herbal extracts. Dietary supplement manufacturers are permitted to claim that these products can help with certain physical conditions associated with different stages in life, but they cannot be used to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent physical disease