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54 Cards in this Set

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What are the bottom chambers of the heart called?
the ventricles
What are the top chambers of the heart called?
the atria
What is the SA node and what does it do?
it is the fastest generating electrical impulse area of the heart and it sets the pace
What do the AV node and the Purkinje Fibers do?
they transmit the impulse
What type of cardiovascular agent are nitrates, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers examples of?
antianginals
What are antiarrhythmics used to treat?
irregular heart rhythms
How do antiarrhythmics work?
they regulate the conduction activity of the heart by inhibiting abnormal pacemaker cells or recurring abnormal impulses and restoring a normal rhythm
What type of cardiovascular agents include beta blockers and drugs that block sodium channels, potassium ion channels, and calcium channels?
antiarrhythmics
What does CHF stand for?
Congestive Heart Failure
When does CHF occur?
when the heart is unable to effectively contract and pump out the volume of blood in the left ventricle
What is the prototype cardiac glycoside drug?
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
How does digoxin work?
It decreases the conduction of electrical impulses through the AV node, and strengthens the force of cardiac contraction (positive inotropic effect).

By slowing down the conduction in the AV node and increasing its refractory period, digoxin can reduce the ventricular rate. The arrhythmia itself is not affected, but the pumping function of the heart improves owing to improved filling.
What is the antidote for Digoxin?
Digoxin immune fab (Digibind)
What do Class I antiarrthymic drugs do?
block sodium channels
What do Class II antiarrthmic drugs do?
block the beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors
What type of drug is Quinidine?
a sodium blocking, antiarrythmic agent (Class 1A)
What type of drug is Procainamide (Pronestyl), Procainamide Sustained Release (Procan SR, Pronestyl SR)?
a sodium blocking, antiarrythmic agent (Class 1A)
What type of drug is Disopyramide (Norpace)?
a sodium blocking, antiarrythmic agent (Class 1A)
What type of drug is Lidocaine (Xylocaine)?
Class 1B, a sodium blocking, antiarrythmic agent (intravenous use only)

-Local anesthetics (topical)
-High therapeutic index
What type of drug is Propranolol?
a Class II, beta-adrenergic receptor site blocking, antiarrythmic agent.
What type of drug is Mexelitine (Mexitil)?
a sodium blocking, antiarrythmic agent (similar to Lidocaine; Class 1B)
What type of drug is Flecainide (Tambocor)?
a sodium blocking, antiarrythmic agent (Class 1C)
What type of drug is Amiodarone (Cordarone) and what does it treat?
Amiodarone is a Class III antiarrythmic agent used to treat life-threatening ventricular arrythmias and prevent their recurrence.
What type of drug is Verapamil (Isoptin, Calan)?
Class IV antiarrythmic and a calcium channel blocker.
What do Class III antiarrythmics do?
Class III agents predominantly block the potassium channels.
What do Class IV antiarrythmics drugs do?
alter the action potential, decrease AV conduction, and prolong repolarization by blocking calcium in cardiac muscle cells.
What effects do beta blockers have on the heart and cardiovascular system?
they slow heart rate, depress AV conduction, and decrease cardiac output
What is CHF?
a form of heart failure in which the heart is unable to pump away the blood returning to it fast enough, causing congestion in the veins
What are the common causes of CHF?
Hypertension and coronary artery disease account for 50%-75% of left ventricular failure.
How do I classify a patient's heart failure?
CHF is classifed as right or left ventricular failure, with systolic or diastolic dysfunction.
What are the CHF medical treatment goals?
Reduce cardiac workload, strengthen myocardial contractility (w/ meds; digoxin), eliminate excess fluid (Diuretics & low sodium diet)
what drug may interact with quinidine (Quinidex)?
Digoxin
-increased digoxin levels and toxicity
give an example of
Beta-Adrenergic Blockers
propranolol (Inderal)
give example of
Calcium channel blockers
verapamil (Calan)
What are the 3 classes of drugs used in the treatment of Dysrhythmias?
A. Sodium channel Blockers: quinidine (Quinidex)
B. Beta-adrenergic blockers: propranolol (Inderal)
C. Calcium channel blockers: verapamil (Calan)
Main example of
Sodium channel Blockers
quinidine (Quinidex)
propranolol (Inderol)
Antihypertensive
Adrenergic Inhibiting Agents
Beta Blocker
Nitroglycerin (NTG): Nitrostat
Antianginal
Vasodilators
Arterial: Nitrate group
Isosorbide Dinitrate Tab (Isordil, Sorbitrate)
Isosorbide Mononitrate Tab (Monoket, Ismo)
Antianginal - Prophylaxis (Prevention)
Nitrates
Nifedipine (Procardia XL)
Antianginal
Calcium channel blocker
Diltiazem (Cardizem)
Antianginal
Calcium channel blocker
Atenolol (Tenormin)
Antianginal
Beta Adrenergic Blocking Agent
Nadolol (Corgard)
Antianginal
Beta Adrenergic Blocking Agent
What is angina?
A medical condition in which lack of blood to the heart causes severe chest pains.
The normal adult heart range is ____ to _____ bpm.
70 to 80 bpm
Which four drugs classes are used to treat CHF?
ACE inhibitors, diuretics, beta blockers, and cardiac glycosides
What does the term "dysrhythmia" mean?
abnormal rhythm, synonymous with arrhythmia
Changes in the ionic currents through ion channels of the myocardial cell membrane are the main cause of what?
cardiac arrhythmia
Which ions are involved in allowing arrhythmias to develop?
sodium, potassium, and calcium
Where can arrythmias occur and what types are related to each loci?
Arrythmias can occur in the atria or in the ventricles.

Atrial flutter (rapid atrial beating, slower ventricular beating)

Atrial fibrillation (AF) (fast, irregular rhythm of the atria, without true relaxation of the ventricles)
Which drugs and classes are most suited for treatment of arrhythmia in case of emergency?
Class Ic agents have the most potent sodium channel blocking effects and are indicated for life-threatening ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or atrial fibrillation.

Class Ic agents include encainide, flecainide, moricizine, and propafenone.
Forms/routes of administration for nitroglycerin?
Sublingual tablets, transdermal patch, topical ointment, and IV injection in acute care settings.
Nitroglycerin Sublingual (Nitrostat)
Antianginal - Acute(severe)
PHARMACOLOGIC - Angina
– Decrease cardiac workload
– Reverse vasospasms
– Does not treat underlying pathology