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44 Cards in this Set

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Positivistic Definition of Alcoholism
- relies on the amount an individual drinks; individual cannot stop drinking (reliant on quantity and necessity)
- it is a fact an individual is an alcoholic
- reliance on the medical model
- "fact"- evidence associated with the body (physical tolerance)
- basic syndromes- brain and behavioral dysfunctions (ex: wet brain)
Dramaturgic Definition of Alcoholism
- not based upon quantity but based on performance
- how well a person can manage themselves regardless of how much that person drinks
- there's a Perceptual Control that has been given to our society (ex: males v. females; how people respond to it)
- can the person who is drinking adequately deflect the label of an alcoholic
- stigma= social blemish (an alcoholic is one of them)
- Master Status- the first thing we think of when we see someone (that person's an alcoholic)
- based on how a person perceives you
Interactionist Definition of Alcoholism
- defined within specific social conflicts (ex: family)
- within an isolated group of people (people we know; people who deal with an alcoholic)
- disruptions within small social groups
- movie: 28 days
- this definition wants to add to the other two definitions by saying specific behaviors that disrupted specific situations created a memory that stays with these people
- focuses on the "mini dramas"
- Definition of the Situation: specific behavioral consequences of drinking that requires some kind of resolution vs. drinking itself (resolution is necessary)
- The Situated Vocabularies- drinker's efforts to rationalize; cannot overocme other's efforts to intervene (others are going to act on this loss of control). Tied to the emotional impact of drinking within the small social circle
Affirmation Narratives
- a substance that is associated with the celebration of achievement or status marketing (alcohol is this)
1. Freedom To
2. Regular Status
3. Mystification
Freedom To
- symbolization of the drink as an emblem of independence and personhood
- Ex: The Shawshank Redemption- drinking on the roof symbolizes being normal (sense of normalcy)
Regular Status
- the "regular" identity. It's the establishment of a stable self outside of the home/workplace
- the "third place" identity- having a place to congregate outside of the home/family. The bar/pub/tarvern took on this "regular identity".
- establishes alcohol as an important symbol associated with the male identity
Mystification
- glorification of alcohol as "miraculous" (it's more than a substance that can get us drunk). It's even in religions.
- process by which alcohol is made= significant preparation (a result of a ritual)
- movie: Mr Roberts (making alcohol by mixing random stuff)
Prohibitive narratives
- returns us back to a positivist definition of alcoholism
- after prohibition, the US holds the individual as accountable (it's up to them to assume responsibility)
- moral imperative to control drinking episodes
1. Asynchronic Drinking
2. Prodromal Drinking
3. Alcoholic Spectacle
4. Societal Gaze
Asynchronic Drinking
- out of time; out of rhythm. ex: no drinking in the morning (this is how we think); binge drinking is drinking out of rhythm
Prodromal Drinking
- drinking to the point of blackouts (passing out, unconscious, failing to remember parts of time) or to the point of aphasia (an individual blacks out but remains conscious- an individual is moving around and being awake but the brain is shut off)
Alcoholic Spectacle
- the drinker making an embarassing scene to the extent that it (the scene) becomes a part of collective memory.
- these spectacles if repeated can create paranoia in family members/friends
- this discredits the alcoholic individual (denies ability to do dramaturgic definition)
Societal Gaze
-perception of a judgment response on the part of observers (alcoholics feel this)
- felt experience of disapproval (the alcoholic and his/her people feel this)
- they feel society is harsh (a pessimistic view)
- relates to alcoholics b/c sometimes they are seen as moral degenerate
Modern Alcoholism Era
-post-depression to late 20th century. Focuses on the Medical Model
- view alcoholics more sympathetically b/c they are seen as individuals not choosing to become an alcoholic, but they are predisposed to become alcoholics
- alcoholics were related/treated like diabetics
- not seen as moral degenerates anymore
20th Century Orientation to Problem Drinkers
- sees alcoholics as casualties of a "class struggle" (an internal struggle to maintain dignity, worth and middle class respectability)
- alcoholics are struggling to keep dignity in the world (internally conflicted)
Medicalization of Deviant Drinking
- alcoholic is not "morally deviant"
- alcoholic seen as sensitive, intelligent, has doubt, guilt, shame and victimization (they've been sinned against).
Narcissistic Imagery
- greek god Narcissus who kept looking at himself in the pond and became consumed by his image.
- medical model sees alcoholic as a self-obsessed and disabled emotionally(they lack emotionally-healthy intimate bonds)
- irrational loneliness of the alcoholics- the alcoholic sets himself/herself up to fail in relationships, jobs, etc.
- movie: The Lost Weekend
Hiding
-the alcoholic keeps pre-mediated secrets (ex: hiding bottles of alcohol)
- alcoholic thinks people will be harsh, so they feel that they have to keep secrets
- symbolized by the object "out of sight". They keep the objects out of sight
- this sets up a system of lies/ "passing" as sober
Alcoholic complexity
- the alcoholic dialogue is no longer normal dialogue
- extreme lengths created by an alcohlic to isolate self from non-alcoholics
- it's a "tangled web"
- there's an uneasiness in dialogue with an alcoholic b/c you never know what will happen. Feeling of dissonance.
Alcoholic Alibi
-the drinker wants to blame everyone/everything else
- ex: The Lost Wknd- Don blames Wick and Helen
- drinker seeks to "externalize blame"
- drinker has a denial of the full extent of alcoholism ("cannot be cut off completely"). Ex: saying they just need a little bit or they just want to see it
Seeking Congruence
- drinker has the perference for established casual connections
- superficial ties created within 3rd places (bars)
- has detached companionships (alcoholic don't let people in/give a perosn their heart)
- there's a fear of intimacy
Institutional Complicity
- the promotion and selling of alcohol as a necessary substance
- the allowance of an alcoholic (with money) to drink- in spite of knowing better. Alcoholics can go to bars and get served even if people know they're an alcoholic
- this concept was more of a big deal in 1940s-50s. There was a semi-agreement to not promote alcohol back then (this is not the case now)
Alcoholic Simulation
- the narcissistic replacement of sex with alcohol (object catharsis- in and of itself)
- Implication of lack of heterosexual desire (among males). This is shown in movies like The Lost Wknd (Don avoids his relationship with Helen)
Spiritus Contra Spiritum
- "spirits against spirits"
- alcohol (spirits) destroys the soul
- search for spiritual meaning/artistic prowess (myth of booze and muse) via alcohol- misguided
- a lot of the great old writers/artists were alcoholics, thought that alcohol helped them
- alcoholic sees self on a spiritual quest (turning to alcohol to find salvation)
- experts think: we need to replace one spiritual quest (alcoholism) with another (sobriety)
Alcoholic Depravity
- manic overindulgence of alcohol
- fills "hole in soul" with alcohol
- example of this in Leaving Las Vegas
Spiritual Thirst
- alcoholic see self as a misguided artist
- provokes fear, anger and resentment among others
Liquid Courage
- origin: it's a primer for a showdown
- with an alcoholic it's not a showdown, but just trying to "get by" with everyday life tasks- extent of addiction
Alcoholic Pathos
- alcoholic cannot see the absurdity of his "act" (thinks he's fooling others)
- allows self to be a contradictory victim (the alcoholic creates a lot of chaos and he/she is also victimized by this chaos)- creates and is victimized by chaos and opportunism
Family Dilemmas
- alcohol is not only a disease of the self, but a disease of the system (family)
- alcoholism: a family disease? Takes place in context of "role adaptation". All the people in the family behave in conjunction with rhythms of alcoholic
- Afflicted non-alcoholics: non alcoholics begin to see the world/others negatively
- Female alcoholic: domestic anchor becomes unhinged (when she begins drinking the house seems to unravel)
The Wayward Drinker
- individual responsibility to fulfill role obligations
- primary roles (keep the institution going)- in the Western World, the most important primary role is the mother
- ex: When a Man Loves a Woman
Masculinized Femininity
- association with the assertion of the female as a sexual object
- women alcoholics are said to be more "masculine" (more assertive, more sexual- wants to own her sexuality)
- alcoholic woman is seen as more assertive and she takes an ambiguous heroism (there's a sense that she can't do this on her own- needs help from a doctor, psychiatrist, counselor, etc.)
Desexualization
- seen as a conflict between the "sexualized girl" and the "proper woman" (a girl being sexual but then needs to change into a proper woman/mother)
- alcoholism is "threatening motherhood" and the woman needs to retrieve this motherhood and make amends (she desexualizes herself to try and recover her motherhood)
Spacing Dilemmas
- ongoing discomfort that the alcoholic feels about living in the home (feeling out of place)
- specific dilemma: secretive hiding places (where do I hide them so no one knows?)
- General dilemma: the drinker's place in the home
A.) special attention to alcoholic mother (domestic symbol)
B.) loses privileges to make decisions (the drinker loses these)
C.) absence of the female drinker- there's an unaccounted place in the home (seen in US: the household is not a home without the presense of mother)
Enabling Playmate
- sexually related to the addict/alcoholic and becomes a part of the addict/alcoholic's definition of his/her sexuality
- he/she begins to experience confusion in regard to recovery
-the male has to assume an antagonist kind of role
- Ex: Michael (Andy Garcia) shows this in the movie
the Alcoholic Pretense
- In When a Man Loves a Woman, Michael makes no reference to the word alcoholic until she goes into rehab
- there's a silent understanding of identity
- process of avoiding explicit reference
Post Pretense
- decronstructing the secret (of the word/meaning of alcoholic)
- explicit definition of labels- a family understanding of it
The Alcoholic Relationship: two main issues
1.) Career of emotional attachment in conjunction with alcohol consumption- alcoholics "contaminate" each other with their disease of alcoholism
- Ex: Days of Wine and Roses
- they develop an emotional attachment
2.) Alcoholic couple forms a convoluted bond indicating: loyalty/distrust; love/resentment; sympathetic understanding/misunderstanding
Existential Dilemma
- "soulmate" love seems like it was destiny that brought them together but it's actually built on choices
-Key Conflict: alcoholic soulmates solve their problems of loneliness by simply being together, but create new problems that make them lonely again
- Key Contradiction: alcoholic couple becomes stable via alcohol consumption; but alcoholic couple continues to make decisions that threaten stability
Cynical Gaze
- a point of view of alcoholics that regard the world as harsh, ugly and dull/boring. Drinking makes the world more tolerable to them.
Ex: Joe starts out like this but Kirstie turns into an even harsher version of this as an alcoholic
Compliance Dramas
- use of sex (call for sex, witholding sex, rejection of sex) in conjunction with alcohol
- sex= weapon
- alcohol= ammunition
-these two become intertwined
Error Signal
- simply a sign that something is wrong
- in the context of an individual perceiving something: it's the realization (by one alcoholic) that the couple lacks practical spiritual grounding
- ex: Joe comes to the realization that he is a drunk and needs someone to help him (he lacks practical spiritual grounding)
Under Error Signal: Spiritual Anchoring
- alcoholic's decision making is flawed and salvation via communal commitment and abandoning his or her cynicism (the alcoholic realizes that salvation must be thru some kind of help)
Under Error Signal:
Bottoming Out
- a feeling of utter degradation and powerlessness after a drinking episode
- ex: Alice in When a Man Loves a Woman feels this after she slaps her daughter
Under Error Signal:
The Third Perspective of Alcoholic Sponsor
- a guide, guardian angel to impress upon the alcoholic that a "new world" exists
Schismogenesis
- by Gregory Bateson
- it's a fork in the road of a couple. The fork in the road denies mutual travel (the couple is going to individually go their separate ways)
- It has bleak options: you can deny a problem that you've already admitted to, or you can let go and terminate (let this other person go)