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22 Cards in this Set

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penicillin G
1. Strep pneumoniae; 2. Group A Strep (S. pyogenes); 3. Neisseria meningitidis; 4. Treponema pallidum (syphilis); 5. Pasteurella multocida; 6. Listeria monocytogenes; 7. Actinomyces israelii
penicillin V
1. strep throat caused by Group A strep; 2. covers all organisms that penicillin G does
Amino penicillins: amoxicillin and ampicillin
1. broader gram negative coverage than basic penicillins; 2. covers group D streptococci (enterococci)
IV penicillinase-resistant drugs: Methicillin, Nafcillin, Oxacillin
used for skin infections when Staph aureus is possible pathogen
Oral penicillinase-resistant drugs: Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Nafcillin, Oxacillin
used for skin infections when Staph aureus is possible pathogen
Anti-pseudomonal penicillins: Carbenicillin, Azlocillin, Mezlocillin, Piperacillin, Ticarcillin
1. used when Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a possible pathogen; 2. anaerobic coverage
Augmentin, Timentin, Unasyn, Zosyn
1. very broad coverage: used with nosocomial pneumonias; 2. anaerobic coverage; 3. Timentin and Zosyn cover Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Cephalosporins: 1st gen
1. excellent gram-positive coverage; 2. great for skin infections
Cephalosporins: 2nd gen
1. covers more gram negatives than first; 2. anaerobic coverage: cefmetazole, cefoxitin, cefotetan
Cephalosporins: 3rd gen
1. ceftazidime, cefoperazone, cefepime have antipseudomonal activity; 2. ceftriaxone has great penetration into CSF - good for meningitis
imipenem-cilastatin
broad spectrum: 1. gram positives; 2. gram negatives (incl. Pseudomonas); 3. anaerobes; 4. doesn't cover MRSA
aztreonam
magic bullet for gram negatives only
chloramphenicol
wide spectrum, kills gram +, gram -, anaerobes, but toxicity can be deadly; used for: 1. bacterial meningitis in kids allergic to penicillin and cephalosporin; 2. rickettsial infections in kids and pregnant moms (since tetracycline should be avoided in kids)
clindamycin
1. anaerobes (wounds, female genital tract infections); 2. gram + if allergic to penicillin and cephalosporins; 3. toxoplasma gondii (combo with pyrimethamine)
linezolid
community acquired pneumonia, nosocomial pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections caused by: 1. vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE); 2. multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae; 3. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus; 4. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis
erythromycin
gram + absorb this drug 100x better than gram -! This is DOC for community-acquired pneumonia not requiring hospitalization: S. pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis (TWAR); also used as alternative to penicillin for streptococcal and staphylococcal organisms (esp for strep throat and cellulitis) in patients allergic to penicillin; also good for Legionnaires' disease
tetracycline/doxycycline
1. Rickettsia; 2. Chlamydia; 3. Mycoplasma pneumoniae; 4. Entamoeba histolytica; 5. Spirochetes (2nd choice for Treponema pallidum); 6. Brucella (second choice behind Bactrim); 7. Nocardia (2nd or 3rd choice); 8. facial acne
aminoglycosides
1. gram - enteric organisms; 2. also effective against Tularemia, Yersinia pestis, Brucellosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis
spectinomycin
gonorrhea (alt. to penicillin), NOT effective against Treponema pallidum or Chlamydia
vancomycin
1. covers all gram + organisms, including resistant strains MRSA, Enterococcus, multidrug resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis; 2. pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium dificile; 3. treat gram + organisms in patients allergic to penicillin and cephalosporin
Bactrim = (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or TMP/SMX)
wide gram + and gram -, but no anaerobic coverage; use mnemonic TMP/SMX: T (Tree) - respiratory tree, covers S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, good for otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis and pneumonia which are caused by these bugs; M (Mouth) - GI tract, covers gram - that cause diarrhea such as Shigella, Salmonella, E. Coli; P (Pee) - genitourinary tract, covers UTI, prostatitis and urethritis caused by the enterics, N. gonorrheae and Chlamydia; Smx (Syndrome) - AIDS, covers Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, given to prevent PCP when CD4+ T-cell count drops below 200-250. Bactrim also covers Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora belli, and Nocardia
Fluoroquinolones
coming soon...