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28 Cards in this Set

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ADP Receptor Blockers
- irreversibly alters the plasma membranes of platelets (cant receive signals necessary for them to aggregrate); given to prevent thrmobi formation
- EX; Clopidrogel (Plavix); Ticlopindine (Ticlid)
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)
-inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
-analgesic and atipyretic effects
-ex: ibuprofen; APA, vioxx
-side effects: ulcers; occult bleeding
- inhibts bacterial protein synthesis
- interupts nucleic acid synthesis
- interferes with normal metabolism

-ex: penicillin; sulfanomides; tetracyclines; refampin; cephalosporins
- bactericidal = causes irrereversible and lethal damge to bacteria
- bacteriostatic = inhibts bacterial growth
- not all are effective agianst pathogens
- broad spectrum is active against gram pos and neg bacteria
-suppress the development of inflammatory symptoms (heat, redness, swelling, tenderness)
-suppress symptoms used in diagnosis of inflammation
- ex: hydrocortisone
Antiviral agents
- interupt viral replication
- priamry target is viral RNA or DNA
- some agents active only agianst RNA only or DNA only, some agianst both
- ex: acyclovir (herpes simplex, varicella zoster); retrovir &AZT (HIV); ribavirin (RSV, influenza A or B)
Antifungal agents
- Polyene family = combines with fungal cell membranes causing leakage of the fungal cell contents and lysis of cell
- ex: amphotericin B; nystatin
- Imidazole inhibts synthesis of components that form cell membrane and casue damage of integrity of cell membrane
- ex: fluconazole
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor
- inhibts angiotensin converting enzyme wich is responsible for converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstictor and stimulater of aldosterone
- aldosterone stimulates na and h2o reabsorption which can lead to fluid overload and CHF
- side effects = rash; decreased bp; increased K; hypovolemia; sexual dysunction; cough; angioedema
- Ex: captropril (Capoten); Enalapril (Vasotec); Lisinporil(Prinovil); Quinalpril (Accupril)
Angiotensin 2 Receptor Blockers
- Blocks binding of angiotensin 2 on its receptors, causing reduced aldosterone cncentration in blood and decreases BP
- SE: cough; headache; dizziness; fatigue; insomnia; impotence
- Ex: Losartan (Cozaar); Valsartan (Diovan)
Osmotic Diuretics
- increases the osmolaity if the tubular filtrate
- pulls h20 from ciculation
- ex: Mannitol
Alpha(2)Adrenergic Agents
- centrally acting
- affects cardiovascular center in the CNS, causing decrease in sympathetic output, resulting in vasodilation and decreased BP and HR
- SE: drowsiness; sedation; orthostatic hypotension; CHF; dysrhythmias; decreased libido
- Ex; Clonidine (Catapres); Methyldopa (Aldomet)
Loop/ High ceiling diuretic
- reduces reabsorption of Na in Loop of Henle
- ex: Lasix; Bumex
Alpha (1) Adrenergic Blcokers
- Generally considered peripherally acting
- Blocks stimulation of the SNS (fight.flight) at the alpha adrenergic recpetor
- leads to vasodilation decreasing BP
- SE: orthostatic hyptoension; drowsiness; sexual impotence; diarrhea
- Ex: Doxazosin (cardura): Prazosin (Minipress)
Thiazide Diuretics
- Prevent the reabsorption of Na in distal convulted tubule
- Ex: Diuril; HydroDiuril; Diulo
Antihyperlipidemic Drugs
- reduces plasma level at various lipoproteins, especiall cholesterol
-SE: muscle pain; weakness; malaise; heamtologic and liver function changes
-EX: Fibrates = Gemifibrozil (Lopid), Fenofibrate (Tricor):
- EX: HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins) = Atorvastatin (Lipitor); Lovastatin (Mevacor); Simvastatin (Zocor)
EX: Vitamin B3 = Nicotinin Acid (Niacin)
Potassium Sparing Diuretic
- reduces Na reabsorption and increases potassium secretion in late distal tubule or cortical collecting tubule
- ex: Aldactone
- Heparin: enhances the inhibitory action of antithrombin III; therapuetic dose 1.5-2.5 times PTT; antidote: protamine sulfate

- Warfarin (Coumadin): inhibits the hepatic synthesis of various coagulation factors (2,7,9,10); therapeutic dose 1.5-2.5 PT; antidote = vitamin K

- Low molecular weight heparins: similar to heparin, but inhibition is more specific to factor X; more stabel response; fewer side effects
EX: Enoxaparin (lovenox)
- reduces plasma volume and decreases peripheral resistance
- Side effects: orthostatic HTN; increased uriantion; hypokalemia leading to dysryhtmias
Antiplatelet Aggregrate
- binds to enzymes in platelts which inhibit platelet aggregration; slide past each other - doesnt build up to form clots
- ex: ASA (aspirin); Dipyridamole(Persantine)
- Lidocaine = ventricular dysrhythmias
- Cordorone (Aminodorone)= ventricular dysrhytmias
- Bretylium = ventricular dysryhtmias
- Procainamide (Procan) = atrial and ventricular dysr.
- Quinidine = atrial dysr.
Calcium Channel Blockers
- inhibts transport of Ca into myocardial cells causing the arteriolar smooth mucle to relax
- lowers peripheral resistance
- reduces BP
- SE: hypotension; bradycardia; peripheral edema; dizziness; headache
- Ex: Verapamil ( Calan, Isoptin); Diltiazem (Cardizem)
Beta Blockers
- Decreases Heart rate (neg chonotrope) and BP
- decreases force of contraction by reducing contractility (neg inotrope)
- SE: bronchospasms; bradycardia; heart block; hypotension; sexual dysfunction; masked hypoglycemic response
- EX; Atenolol ( Tenormin); Metoprolol (lopressor, Torpol); Propranolol (Inderal)
- directly relaxes vascualr smooth muscle which results in vasodilation and decreases BP, decrease peripheral vascualr resistance, leading to reduced afterload
- SE; fluid retention; reflex tachycardia; dizziness; anemai; hypotension
- EX; Hydralazine(Apresoline); Minoxidil (Loniten); Nitroglycerin
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Blockers
- Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa is an enzyme important for platelet aggregration
- prevents thrombus formation
- very effective - very $$
Ex; Abciximab (ReoPro); Eptifibatide ( Integrillin); Tirofiban (Aggrastat)
- Promotes fibrinolysis (clot destruction) by converting plasminogen to plasmin
- Enzyme plasmin digests fibrin and breaks down fibrinogen, prothrombin and other plasma proteins and clotting factors
- dissolves the thrombi
EX; Alteplase (Activase, t-PA); Reteplase (Retavase)
Morphine Sulfate
- decreases workload of heart
- decreases anxiety
- decreases pain
- used as coronary artery vasodiltor
- decreases venous return
- deceases cardiac workload
Vasodilating agents
- Ca Channel blockers
EX: Verapamil (Calan, Isoptin)
- Beta blockers
EX: Atenolol (Tenormin); Metoprolol (lopressor, Toprol); Propranolol (Inderal)
- Alpha- Adrenergic Blocker
EX: Nitroprusside (Nipride)
Inotropic Agents
- Dopamine = increases force of contraction; increases HR; increases renal perfusion at low doses
- Dobutamine = increases force of contraction
- Phosphodiesterase inhibitors = Inamrinone (Inocor)
- Cardiac glycosides = Digitalis