Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/36

Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are antiinfectives (antibiotics) used for?
Treatment and prophylaxis of various bacterial infections
How do antiinfectives work?
kill (bactericidal) or inhibit the growth of (bacteriostatic) susceptible pathogenic bacteria
Antiinfectives are not active against _____ or _____.
viruses or fungi
Antiinfective agents are subdivided into categories depending on _____ and _____ spectrum.
chemical
antimicrobial
What testing is desirable to optimize therapy?
culture and susceptibility
Dosage modification may be required in patients with what two types of insufficiency?
hepatic
renal
Use cautiously in?
pregnancy and lactating women
Prolonged inappropriate use of broad spectrum antiinfective agents may lead to _______ with fungi or resistant bacteria.
superinfection
_______ and ______ chemically inactivate each other and should not be physically admixed.
penicillins and aminoglycosides
_________ may decrease hepatic metabolism of other drugs.
Erythromycins
___________ increases serum levels of penicillins and related compounds.
Probenecid
High protein-bound antiinfectives such as _______ may displace or be displaced by other highly bound drugs.
sulfonamides
Name 2 extended-spectrum penicillins and 3 cephalosporins which may increase the risk of bleeding with anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, antiplatelet agents, or NSAIDS?
penicillins:
ticarcillin
piperacillin

cephalosporins:
cefamandole
cefoperazone
cefotetan
Which antiinfective group's absorption is decreased by antacids, bismuth subsalicylate, iron salts, sucralfate, and zinc salts?
Fluoroquinolone
What should be assessed for prior to and throughout therapy?
signs and symptoms
Determine the previous ______ in patients receiving penicillins or cephalosporins?
hypersensitivities
Obtain specimens for ______ and ______ prior to initiating therapy. First dose may be given before receiving results.
culture and sensitivity
Three Potential Nursing Diagnoses?
Infection, risk for
Knowledge deficit, related to
medication regimen
Noncompliance
Most anti-infectives should be administered around the clock to maintain therapeutic serum drug levels.
okay
Instruct patient to continue taking medication around the clock until completely finished even if feeling better.
okay
Advise patient to report the signs of _______ (black, furry overgrowth on the tongue, vaginal itching or discharge; loose or foul-smelling stools) and ______ to hcp.
superinfection
allergy
Instruct patient to notifiy hcp if ______ and _____ develop, esp. if stool contains pus, blood, or mucus. Advise patient not to treat diarrhea without consulting hcp. Notifiy hcp if symptoms do not improve.
fever
diarrhea
Effectiveness of therapy can be demonstrated by?
resolution of the signs and symptoms of infection
Length of time for effectiveness of therapy depends on _____ and site of _____.
organism
infection
Name 7 aminoglycosides?
amikacin
gentamicin
kanamycin
neomycin
netilmicin
streptomycin
tobramycin
Name 2 carbapenems?
ertapenem
imipenem/cilastatin
Name 5 first-generation cephalosporins?
cefadroxil
cefazolin
cephalexin
cephapirin
cephradine
Name 8 second-generation cephalosporins?
cefaclor
cefmetazole
cefonicid
cefotetan
cefoxitin
cefprozil
cefuroxime
loracarbef
Name 10 third-generation cephalosporins?
cefdinir
cefepime
cefoperazone
cefotaxime
cefpodoxime
ceftazidime
ceftibuten
cefditoren
ceftizoxime
ceftriaxone
Name 4 extended spectrum penicillins?
piperacillin
piperacillin/tazobactam
ticarcillin
ticarcillin/clavulanate
Name 12 fluoroquinolones?
alatrofloxacin
ciprofloxacin
enoxacin
gatifloxacin
gemifloxacin
levofloxacin
lomefloxacin
moxifloxacin
norfloxacin
ofloxacin
sparfloxacin
trovafloxacin
Name 3 macrolides?
azithromycin
clarithromycin
erythromycin
Name 12 penicillins?
amoxicillin
amoxicillin/clavulanate
ampicillin
ampicillin/subactam
benzathine penicillin
penicillin G
penicillin V
procaine penicillin G
cloxacillin
dicloxacillin
nafcillin
oxacillin
Name 4 sulfonamides?
trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole
doxycycline
minocycline
tetracycline
Name 8 miscellaneous anti-infectives?
drotrecogin
linezolid
metronidazole
mupirocin
nitrofurantoin
quinupristin/dalfopristin
trimethoprim
vancomycin
Name 11 groups of antiinfectives?
aminoglycosides
carbapenems
first-generation
cephalosporins
second-generation
cephalosporins
third-generation
cephalosporins
extended spectrum
penicillins
fluoroquinolones
macrolides
penicillins
sulfonamides
miscellaneous