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25 Cards in this Set

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Other names for Dextrose 50% 02
D50
Dextrose Mechanism of Action
Increases circulating blood sugar levels to normal.
It also acts briefly as an osmotic diuretic
Dextrose Therapeutic Benefit
Restores circulating blood sugar levels to normal
Dextrose Pharmacologic Class
Carbohydrate
Dextrose Therapeutic Class
Hyperglycemic
Dextrose Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the drug.
Intracranial hemorrhage.
Dextrose Indications for use
Pts in coma due to hypoglycemia and unknown cause.
Pts with altered level of consciousness with low reagent strip reading <60mg/dl.
Cardiac arrest situations.
Dextrose Precautions
Use cautiously in patients with diabetes mellitus who can not tolerate carbohydrate agents.
Dextrose Route and Dosage
Adult:
12.5-25 grams by slow IV bolus

Pediatric:
Dilute 1:1 with sterile water to make a 25% solution (D25W) (0.25mg/ml) 0.5-1.0 g/kg by slow IV bolus
Dextrose Side Effects
CNS: fever, confusion, unconscious in HHS
CV: worsened hypertension and CHF.
RESP: Pulmonary edema
GU: osmotic diuresis.
Dextrose Drug Interactions
Corticosteriods may cause salt and water retention and increase potassium losses.
Dextrose ALS Protocols
PA-ALS Protocol 7002
Glucagon Pharmacologic Class
Antihypoglycemic
Glucagon Therapeutic Class
Antihypoglycemic
Glucagon Mechanism of Action
Glucagon is a hormone excreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas. When released, glucagon increases the level of circulating blood sugar by stimulating the release of glycogen from the liver. The glycogen is quickly broken down to become glucose.
Glugagon Therapeutic Benefit
Glucagon causes an increase in the plasma glucose levels of the circulating blood, causes smooth muscle relaxation, and has positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart.
Glucagon Indications for use
Treat hypoglycemia in the unconscious, combative patient and in situations where an IV line cannot be established.

Gastric relaxation
Glucagon Contraindications
Hypersensitivity
Glucagon Precautions
Use caution in administering to patients with pheochromocytoma. *Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that may cause hypertension. Since glucagons stimulates the release of catecholamines the blood pressure will increase.
Glucagon Route and Dosage
Adult: 1mg IM. *For gastric relaxation 1mg is given IV.

Pediatric: 1mg IM if ≥20kg or ≥5yo.

0.5mg if <20kg or <5 yo.

Can be repeated in 15 minutes if necessary.
Glucagon Side Effects
CNS: Dizziness

CV: Possible hypotension

GI: Nausea & vomiting

RESP: Bronchospasm, respiratory distress
Glucagon Drug Interactions
A precipitate will form if glucagons is mixed with chloride solutions.
Glucagon ALS Protocols
PA ALS 7002A 1-4
7002P 1-4
Glucagon Onset, Peak and Duration
Onset:
4-10 min IM, 1 min IV

Peak: Unknown IM, 30 min IV

Duration: 12-32 min IM, 9-25 min IV
Glucagon Special Note
Glucagon comes in vials that contain 1mg (1 unit vial of powder) and 2 ml of diluting solution (use solution as supplied by the manufacturer or sterile water for injection may be substituted. Glucagon must be reconstituted (mixed) before use.