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219 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ACTUAL SIZE
The size of the part as measured
ALLOWANCE
The minimum clearance or maximum interference between two mating parts
BASIC SIZE
The size from which the limits of size are derived by the application of allowances and tolerance
CLEARANCE
The space between two mating parts
FEATURE
A portion of a part, such as a hole, keyway, or flat surface
LEAST MATERIAL CONDITION
The maximum hole diameter or minimum shaft diameter; when a part weighs the least
LIMITS
The maximum and minimum allowable sized of a feature
MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION
The minimum hole diameter or maximum shaft diameter; when the part weights the most
REFERENCE DIMENSION
A non-toleranced dimension used for information purposes only; it may not govern production or inspection
TOLERANCE
The total amount by which the part dimension are permitted to vary
UNILATERAL TOLERANCE
Variation of size in one direction either positive or negative
BILATERAL TOLERANCE
Variation of size in both directions positive and negative
SPECIFIC TOLERANCE
Stated with dimension in field of drawing
GENERAL TOLERANCE
Stated in title block
CLEARANCE FIT TOLERANCE
Internal dimension maintains a smaller size than external between mating parts.
Fit type: RC - Running & sliding, LC - Locational clearance.
INTERFERENCE FIT TOLERANCE
Internal dimension maintains a larger size than external between mating parts.
Fit type: LT - Transition
TRANSITIONAL FIT TOLERANCE
Condition where a clearance or interference fit may be present between mating parts.
Fit type: LN - Locational interference, FN - Force or shrink.
BASIC HOLE SYSTEM
Minimum hole size is used as the base size for fit tolerance calculations
BASIC SHAFT SYSTEM
Maximum shaft size is used as the basic size for fit tolerance calculations
Are dimension and extension lines permitted to cross?
No
Are dimension lines permitted to cross each other?
No
How should a cylindrical feature be dimensioned?
With its length and diameter in the rectangular view
What is the size of dimensional figures?
.125" (3mm) tall
How is a dimension on a drawing noted that is not to scale?
Must be underlined or denoted either NTS or NOT TO SCALE
Where should the shoulder of a leader start?
Either the beginning or the end of a note with the shoulder mid height of the lettering
Are dimensional figures permitted in a sectioned area?
Only if necessary, and a clear space should be provided
Where and what is a local note?
Applied directly to a view of the drawing and supplies manufacturing information
Is it permissible for extension lines to cross extension lines?
Yes
How are machining operation notes managed?
Given in the order they are to be performed
Which dimensions do not have tolerances?
Reference
Max or min
Commercial stock
ACUTE SCALENE TRIANGLE
Acute: no interior angle is greater than 90 degrees
Scalene: no equal sides or angles
OBTUSE SCALENE TRIANGLE
Obtuse: one angle is greater than 90 degrees
Scalene: no equal sides or angles
RHOMBUS
Equal length of sides; "squished" square
RHOMBOID
Opposite length of sides equal; "squished" square
TRAPEZIUM
Four-sided shapes with no parallel sides
CHORD
Any straight line whose opposite ends terminate on the circumference of a circle
COMPLEMENTARY ANGLES
Two angles whose sum is 90 degrees
MAJOR AXIS
The long axis of an ellipse
SUPPLEMENTARY ANGLES
Two angles whose sum is 180 degrees
CIRCUMSCRIBED
A figure bounding so as to touch in as many places possible
INSCRIBED
A figure encircled so as to touch as many places possible
BEVEL
A slanted surface not at 90° to another surface
ROUND
An exterior corner found on cast, forged or molded parts
SKEW LINES
Lines that are non-intersecting, non-parallel in 3-D space
QUADRILATERAL
A plane figure bounded by four straight sides
RULES FOR SELECTING THE PROPER FRONT VIEW
1) Show the part in its normal operating position
2) Select the view that shows the part's most descriptive shape
3) Select the view to eliminate hidden lines in adjacent views
4) Place the longest dimension of the part in the front view
5) Select the front view that gives the part a stable position on the drawing sheet
How do lines appear on orthographic projection?
As points, foreshortened, or true length
Do hidden lines or centerlines have precedence on the drawing?
Hidden lines
THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION
Used in USA & Canada
Views are projected on planes between teh part and the person viewing the object
FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION
Used outside the USA
Views are projected on planes behind the part
Usually drawn in metric
What is the function of a section view?
To show complicated interiors of parts that are difficult to interpret through the use of hidden lines
Do section lines need to be all at the same angle for a single part?
Yes
Can section lines identify material?
They can identify the general class of material such as steel, brass or rubber
Do section lines need to be all at the same angle for a single part?
Yes
What are shown unsectioned?
Thin items such as gaskets or sheet metal
FULL SECTION
The cutting plane line extends straight through the object, generally at the centerline of symmetry
HALF SECTION
The cutting plane passes half-way through the object, removing 1/4 of the object
OFFSET SECTION
To include features that do not appear in a straight line, the cutting plane may be offset to pass through the features
ALIGNED SECTION
The cutting plane is offset to pass through features that are then rotated into a plane perpendicular to the line of sight of the section view
BROKEN-OUT SECTION
Where only a portion of the object needs to be shown in the section, teh section is limited by a short freehand break line. NO CUTTING PLANE LINE IS REQUIRED.
REVOLVED SECTION
A cutting plane line is passed through the object and revolved 90 degrees in place towards the plane of the drawing; used to show the cross-section of a spoke, bar, rib, etc.
REMOVED SECTION
A section that is not a direct projection from teh view with the cutting plane. Tahe section view is generally moved from its normal projection position, but must remain in its true orthographic orientation.
What objects are not sectioned?
Webs, ribs, gear teeth and other like features
COMPONENTS THAT MAKE UP A DETAIL DRAWING
1) Necessary multiviews
2) Dimensional information
3) Identify part & part number
4) Part material
5) Engineering changes (revision block)
6) Drafter/checker names
7) Assembly the part fits & quantity required
8) General notes with manufacturing information
COMPONENTS THAT MAKE UP AN ASSEMBLY DRAWING
1) Arrangement of parts
2) Sections required to show internal features
3) Enlarged views to show detail
4) Parts list / bill of materials
5) Reference item numbers keyed to BOM
6) Manufacturing processed required during assembly
VISIBLE/OBJECT LINES
-Thick line (0.6mm)
HIDDEN LINES
-Thin line (0.3mm)
SECTION LINES
-Pattern of thin (0.3mm) straight, equally spaced parallel lines (hatching)
SYMMETRY LINE
-Thick line (0.6mm)
-Geometrically the same as a centerline with teh addition of two short thick parallel lines at each end of the line
EXTENSION LINE
-Thin line (0.3mm)
-Spaced 1.5mm away from the feature being dimensioned
-3mm past the arrowhead of the dimension
LEADER LINES
Thin inclined lines ending in an arrowhead (for dimensions)
CUTTING PLANE LINE
-Thick
-Series of evenly spaced dashes, OR
alternate long dashes and pairs of short dashes, OR
dashes left out
-The letters I, O, Q, S, X, and Z are not used
VIEWING PLANE LINE
-Thick
-Used to indicate the viewing position for removed views
-Same lines and letters as cutting plane line
LONG BREAK LINE
-Thin lines joined by zigzags (like occasional PVCs)
-Used when complete views are not required
SHORT BREAK LINE
-Thick freehand line
-Used when complete view are not required
PHANTOM LINE
-Thin line comprised of alternate long dashes and pairs of short dashes
-Used to show alternate position of moving parts, repeated details, adjacent positions of related parts and filleted or rounded corners
CHAIN LINE
-Thick line consisting of alternate long and short dashes
-Used to indicate a surface to receive additional treatment or a projected tolerance zone identified through the use of GDT
BORE
To enlarge a hole to a more accurate size
BLIND HOLE
A hole that does nto go all the way through the part
COUNTERBORE
The enlargement of the end of a hole to a specified diameter and depth
COUNTERDRILL
To form a conical shoulder in a drilled hole by enlarging it with a larger drill
COUNTERSINK
To recess a hole with a cone-shaped tool to provide a seat for a flat head screw
REAM
To enlarge a hole to a more accurate size and surface finish
FORM
Profile of a thread, such as simplified, detailed or schematic. Simplified form is industry preferred and quickest to execute.
CREST
The outside point of a thread
ROOT
The inside meeting point of a thread
PITCH
The distance between thread points
LEAD
One complete revolution of a thread
KEY
Piece of metal placed so that part of it lies in a groove cut in a shaft, but fitting into a groove cut into a mating hub; creates restrictive movement between mating parts
RIVET
Used as a permanent fastener, generally between pieces of sheet or rolled metal
RETAINING RING
Designed to prevent axial movement of a shaft in a hub; generally a ring is placed around shaft to restrict movement within the mating part (hub)
What are finishing marks left off of?
Rolled stock, plate, sheet, or other raw materials not machined in the manufacturing process
What does a finish mark look like?
Checkmark or a variation of a checkmark
TAP
A tool used to cut internal threads
What is a pictoral drawing?
Axonometric, oblique, and perspective drawings
What types of lines are generally left off of pictural drawings?
Hidden lines
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
3 equal axis & 3 equal planes; true isometric is revolved at 45° and tipped up or down at 35°16'
DIAMETRIC PROJECTION
2 equal axis and 2 equal planes
TRIMETRIC PROJECTION
No equal axis or planes
ISOMETRIC DRAWING
-All angles of the isometric axis are equal
-All measurements are taken from the isometric axis full scale
-Common drawn axis is 30°horizontally
OBLIQUE DRAWING
The object is placed with its principal face parallel to the plane of projection
GENERAL OBLIQUE DRAWING
Depth dimension at any scale
CAVALIER OBLIQUE DRAWING
Depth dimension full scale
CABINET OBLIQUE DRAWING
Depth dimension half scale
PERSPECTIVE DRAWING
Most photorealistic of the pictorial drawings; horizontal line, station point, ground line and vanishing points
FUNCTION OF AN AUXILIARY VIEW
-To show true size & shape of a surface that is not parallel to any of the 6 principal views
-To show irregularly shaped features that are not adequately shown in the principle views
-To find the true length of a line
-To find a piont view of a line
-To find the true size of a plane
-To find the edge view of a plane
-Circular features on incline surface will appear as an ellipse in principle view
DEPTH AUXILIARY VIEW
Auxiliary view taken from the front view
HEIGHT AUXILIARY VIEW
Auxiliary view taken from the top view
WIDTH AUXILIARY VIEW
Auxiliary view taken from the side view
REFERENCE LINE/PLANE OR FOLD LINE
Must be constructed parallel to teh edge view of a surface to get the true size and shape of the surface
SECONDARY AUXILIARY VIEW
Required to find the true size & shape of the feature when a feature of an object is in an oblique position in relationship to the principal planes of projection
THREE COMPONENTS OF CAD
Hardware, software, user
What type of software better captures design intent as campared to a 2-D software package?
Parametric design software
BYTES VS. MEGABYTES
KB = 1024 bytes = 1x10(3)
MG = 1024 KB = 1x10(6)
GB = 1024 MG = 1x10(9)
ACRFLT
Across flats
ANSI
Americal National Standards Institute
ANLR
Angular
APPROX
Approximate
ASME
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASSY
Assembly
BSC
Basic
B/M
Bill of Materials
BC
Bolt circle
BR
Brass
BUSH
Bushing
CS
Carbon steel
CSTG
Casting
CHAM
Chamfer
CIR
Circularity
CRS
Cold-rolled steel
CONC
Concentric
CBORE
Counterbore
CDRILL
Counterdrill
CSK
Countersink
DEG
Degree or angle
DP
Depth
DIA
Diameter
DIM
Dimension
DWG
Drawing
EQL SP
Equal spaces
FIG
Figure
FAO
Finish all over
FL
Flat
GA
Gage
GI
Gray iron
HD
Head
HT TR
Heat treat
HVY
Heavy
HEX
Hexagon
HYDR
Hydraulic
ID
Inside diameter
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
LH
Left hand
LG
Length
L
Liter
MST
Machine steel
MI
Malleable iron
MATL
Material
M
Metric thread
MIN
minimum
MDL
Module
NOM
Nominal
NO
Number
OC
On center
OD
Outside diameter
PAR
Parallel
PERP
Perpendicular
P
pitch
PC
pitch circle
PD
Pitch diameter
PL
Plate
R
Radius
REF or ()
Reference or reference diameter
rev/min
Revolutions per minute
RH
Right hand
"
Second (arc)
'
Minute (arc)
SEC
Second (time)
SECT
Section
SLOT
Slotted
SOCK
Socket
SPHER
Spherical
S∅
Spherical diameter
SR
Spherical radius
SFACE
Spotface
SQ
Square
STL
Steel
STR
Straight
SYM
Symmetrical
NPT
Taper pipe thread
THRU
Through
TOL
Tolerance
W
Watt
WI
Wrought iron
WS
Wrought steel
WELD SYMBOLS
Triangle above line
Weld info for other side
WELD SYMBOLS
Triangle under line
Weld info for arrow side
WELD SYMBOLS
Triangles above & under line
Weld both sides
WELD SYMBOLS
1/4 X 1/2
.25 high x .5 wide
WELD SYMBOLS
Dimension between two vertical lines
Square groove weld (vertical groove between two objects)
WELD SYMBOLS
Angle listed inside V-shape
V-groove weld (angled groove from both sides)
WELD SYMBOLS
Angle listed inside uneven V-shape
Bevel groove (one edge is vertical, the other at an angle)
WELD SYMBOLS
U-shaped (semi-circle) shape
U-groove weld (semi-circle)
WELD SYMBOLS
Half a u-shape (vertical line attached to a 1/4 circle)
J-groove weld (1/4 circle removed) - arrow points to the piece that receives the edge treatment
WELD SYMBOLS
Rectangle box
Plug or slot weld (two vertical lines where circle actually is)
WELD SYMBOLS
Circle on line
Spot weld (grooved on both upper & lower side)
WELD SYMBOLS
Circle with two horzontal lines, on the line
Seam weld (grooved on both upper & lower sides, but has several in a line)
SEAM WELDING
Like spot welding excpet that the spots overlap each other, making a continuous weld seam. In this process, the metal pieces pass between roller electrodes. As the electrodes revolve, the current is automatically turned off and on at the speed at which the parts are set to move.
Who regulates welding symbols?
Americal Welding Society
SPOT WELD
Most commonly used type of resistance welding. The material to be joined is placed between 2 electrodes & pressure is applied. A charge of electricity is then sent from one electrode through the material to the other electrode. Spot welding is especially useful in fabricating sheet metal parts.
PLUG OR SLOT WELD
Used to join overlapping members, one of which has holes (round for plug welds, elongated for slot welds) in it. Weld metal is deposited in the holes & penetrates & fuses with the base metal of teh two memebers to form the joint.
U-GROOVE WELD
The edges of both pieces are given a concave treatment.
J-GROOVE WELD
The edge of one of the pieces is given a concave treatment & the other is left square. As with the bevel groove weld, the perpendicular line is always drawn on the left side and the arrow poinots to the piece that receives the treatment.
BEVEL GROOVE
The edge of one of the pieces is chamfered & the other is left square. The bevel symbol's perpendicular line is always drawn on the left side, regardless of the orientation of the weld itself.
V-GROOVE WELD
The edges of both pieces are chamfered, either singly or doubly, to create the groove. The angle of the V is given on the weld symbol.
SQUARE GROOVE WELD
The groove is created by either a tight fit or a slight separation of the part edges. The amount of separation, if any, is given in the weld symbol.
GROOVE WELDS
Used to make edge-to-edge joints, although it is also often used in corner joints, T joints, & joints between curved and flat pieces. There are many ways to make a groove weld, the differences depending primarily on the geometry of the parts to be joined & the preparation of their edges.
FILLET WELDS
Used to make lap joints, corner joints, & T joints. The fillet weld is roughly triangular in cross-secion, although its shape is not always a right triangle or an isosceles triangle.
WELD SYMBOLS
Circle on angle of leader line
Weld all around