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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is Breast enlargement during pregnancy caused by?
progesterone
What does the pituitary secrete at the time of delivery?
Prolactin
The secretion of prolactin at birth causes what?
production of milk
What causes milk ducts to contract and force milk to nipples?
oxytocin
What is the "let-down reflex"
when breast tissue produces more milk when infant is suckling
How long does full milk production take?
72 hours of breast feeding
What is Colostrum?
thin yellow fluid preceding milk production
What is contained in Colostrum?
vitamins, minerals, glucose, and antibodies.
Lactating mothers need high intake of?
fluids, calcium, protein
Post-partum thrombophlebitis is common and mothers may take _________ or __________ for this problem even if nursing.
Coumadin and heparin
What is galatorrhea?
Milk production in non breast feeding men & women
What causes galactorrhea?
excess prolactin secretion from pituitary
Galactorrhea may also result in _________ & __________ in both men and women.
amenororrhea and decreased libido
What are some of the causes of galactorrhea?
tranq's, over exercise, stress, pregnancy, pituitary tumors, hypothyroidism, MS, renal failure
Drugs that suppress body levels of dopamine are the most common cause of ____
prolactin hyper-secretion
What effect does Dopamine have on prolactin secretion?
represses
What are the 5 D's in nipple exam?
Discharge, Depression, Discoloration, Dermatologic changes, Deviation
Under 40 how often should woman's breast be examined? Over 40?
Under 1- years Over: every year
When should a woman start getting mammography?
yearly at 40
Self breast exam should be done at what point during a woman's cycle?
3-7 days after period
Self breast exam should be done supine w/fingers of the opposite hand? T/F
T
Multiple painful an tender lumps in both breasts is indicative of?
Fibrocystic disease
Fibrocystic disease most monnon in ages?
30-50
What hormone is causative in Fibrocystic disease?
Estrogenic
In fibrocystic disease the fluid filled lesions are treated how?
aspirated by a MD
If aspriated fluid from a fibrocystic lesion is bloody what should she do?
get a biopsy
Does caffeine help or exacerbate fibrocystic disease?
exacerbate
What are the signs of Fibroadenoma?
Mass is movable not fixed to surrounding tissue, firm rubbery solitary masses usually in the 20's or 30's.
Do fibroadenomas need to be removed?
no, not unless patient wants. Multiples are found in 15% of patients who have them
intraductile papillomas may masquerade as?
cancer..should be removed b/c they can degenerate into cancer
What are the 3 types of breast biopsies?
1- Fine needle aspiration 2- Core needle aspiration (most accurate for pathologist to read) 3- Radiographic-directed excisional biopsy (actual operation)
What % of suspicious breast lumps are cancerous?
40%
What % of biopsies are false negative biopsies?
10%
1 in ___ women will develop breast cancer.
8 in some places 7
Mammography misses _____% of cancers?
10%
DCIS has 5 year survival rate of ______?
99%
When cancer is localized to breast overall cure rate is?
75-90%
When axillary lymph nodes are involved in breast cancer, 5 year survival drops to ______ 10 year ______?
45% & 25%
With distant metastasis 5 year survival? 10 year?
5-10% and 2%
BRCA1 gene mutation on chromosome 17 predicts a ____% of breast cancer?
85%