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38 Cards in this Set

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what is the etiology of Mycoplasma?
M. hyorhinis (3-10wk) – polyserositis (abdomen, jts, thorax, heart)
M. hyosynoviae (2-5m) – arthritis
M. hyopneumoniae (6wks & older)
How is Mycoplasma transmitted?
Aerosol droplets
Slow rate of spread
Resists mucociliary defense system
Penetrates mucus blanket and attaches to epithelial cells
10-14d incubation period
What are the clinical signs of M. hyorhinis
Gradual onset, labored breathing
Lameness, abdominal tenderness
Morbidity and mortality low
What are the clincal signs of M. hyosynoviae
 Sudden onset, shifting lameness
Very little swelling of joints
Arched back, feet under body
Recovery may occur in several day
What are the clincal signs of M. hyopneumoniae
Onset gradual, rough coat
Weight loss, decreased feed consumption
Chronic nonproductive cough
Low mortality
What lesions are associated with mycoplasma?
Lung consolidation (apical and cardiac portions) – plum to gray colored areas of consolidation
Polyserositis – can invade any serous cavity such as peritoneum, thorax, joints, scrotum
arthritis, synovitis
What disease must you differentiate from mycoplasma?
Differntiate from Glasser’s disease – Hemophilus parasuis (not such a gradual onset)
How is mycoplasma diagnosed?
ELISA, FA, Culture
What are the treatments for mycoplasma
Lincomycin (TOC for M.hyosynoviae, 5mg/lb)
May see some recovery w/in 2d of tx
Tiamulin
Tylosin (Denegard)
Tetracyclines
Arthritic form is the one that responds most favorably to tx
What are the management practices for mycoplasma?
Depopulation – especially the chronic pneumonic form
All in – all out
Maintain closed herd and buy pigs from reputable sources
Avoid stress to herd
Monitor ammonia levels from pits  flush pits, ammonia can damage the mucociliary mechanism and lead to infection with pneumonic form
Vaccine with booster (2wks after first vaccine given) – reduces number of lung lesions seen
What is the etiology of Haemophilus?
o H. parahemolyticus (A. Plueropneumonia / APP)
 Gram – coccobacillus, 12 different serotypes
 Main serotypes are 1, 3, 5 & 7; #1 is the most virulent
 Subacute, Acute, or Chronic forms
 Cross-reaction between the serotypes doesn’t occur
 50% mortality rate
o H. parasuis
How is haemophilus transmitted?
aerosol droplets
What are the CS of H. pleuropneumonia?
 Bloody froth from nose & mouth
 Cyanosis, cough, respiratory signs
 Fever, death
What are the CS of H. parasuis
 Fever, sudden onset
 CNS signs, swollen joints
 Lameness, respiratory signs
 Polyserositis, pleuritis, death
What lesions are associated with heamophilus?
o Hemorrhages of lung (pleuropneumonia)
o Polyserositis (parasuis)
How do you diagnose heamophilus?
o CF test
o ELISA test
o PCR test – can differentiate A.suis
What is the treatment for heamophilus?
o Penicillin
o Tetracyclines
o Chloramphenicol
o Tiamulin
What are the vax use to prevent heamophilus?
o ParaShield
o PleuroGuard
What are the managment problems to prevent heamophilus
o All in – all out
o Space – need 4sq.ft. per pig to reduce overcrowing
o Ventilation – 2-3 complere air changes
o Size variations – smallest pigs shouldn’t be <90lbs
What is another name for Pseudorabies in other animals ?
Mad Itch
What is the etiology of pseudorabies?
herpes, aggravated precence of A. heamophilus
How is pseudorabies transmited?
o Aerosol
o Carrier animal – saliva
What is the pathogenesis of pseudorabies?
o Virus replicates in the tonsils & nasopharynx
o Spreads to the LN & travels up the axoplasms of the nerves
 Mainly in the Olfactory nerve
o Spreads further to axoplasms of spinal nerve & spinal cord
What are the clinical signs of pseudorabies?
o CNS (salivation, arched back), incoordination, spasms
o Anorexia, scours, fever
o Respiratory involvement
 Seen in sows and gilts
 Will have a cough and fever
o Abortions (50% of sows), mummification in sows and gilts
o Asymptomatic carrier
o Death = 40-60% mortality in young pigs
o Dead dog on premises (virus is very fatal to dogs)
What are the lesions of pseudorabies?
o Congestion and hemorrhages of lymph nodes
 Necrosis of the tonsils
o Rhinitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis
o Pulmonary edema
o Congestion in meninges (meningitis)
o Intranuclear inclusion bodies
o Necrosis of placenta
How do you diagnose Pseudorabies?
SN Test
Latex agglutination test
What methods are used to control the spread of pseudorabies?
Quarantine, test, and slaughter
What is the vax program used for pseudorabies?
 Does NOT prevent infection
 Must get permission to vaccinate animals
 MLV vaccine
 TK-deleted gene vaccine (new)
 TK = Thiamine kinase
 Reduces the amount of shedding of the organism
 Decreases the severity of an outbreak
Do they have a state and federal eradication program?
yes
What is the etiology of PRRS?
Arterivirus=RNA virus
known as "blue eye dz" and "cyclic bouts"
What PRRS confused with?
"blue eye disease- paramyxovirus?
How is PRRS transmitted?
Breeding- direct
boars shed in semen
cross plancenta
medical vecters
What is the CS of PRRS?
o “Stall out” in nursery
o Premature farrowing, low conception
o Late term abortions
o Stillborn weak pig, mummified fetuses
o Increased pre-weaning mortality
o Diffuse interstitial pneumonia (cough)
o Lymphadenopathy
How do you diagnose PRRS?
o PCR – detect viral protein
o ELISA – detect antibody
o A combo of PCR & ELISA is best, but these are time-consuming to perform
What lesions are associated with PRRS?
o Diffuse interstitial pneumonia or secondary bronchial pneumonia
o Lymphadenopathy – generalized
o Myocardial lesions
o Mild encephalitis
o Sows – endometritis, myometritis, placental lesion
o Umbilical cord arteritis, hemorrhage
What is the treatment associated with PRRS?
o All in, all out
o Clean and disinfect
o Separation of old/young pig
o Broad spectrum antibiotics
o Aspirin/banamine
What methods are used for herd PRRS elimination?
o Whole herd depopulation – repopulate in few weeks
o T&R – test & removal – limitations
o Herd closure – (alternative) no entry of replacement (4-8m) remove carriers thru normal attrition, isolation of infection within herd. Preserve genetics, save labor, extend breed period, parity distributing
o Partial depopulation, endemically infected areas – wean/breeding herd
What are the vax used to prevent PRRS?
o MLV – more efficacious
o Killed – safe
o Stop clinical symptoms not infection
o Sows/gilts – 3-4wks prefarrow  pigs 3wks plus
o MLV not approved for pregnant sows/gilts – PPRS negative herd