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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Breast enlargement during pregnancy is stimulated by_____
progesterone
The pituitary gland secretes _______ at time of the delivery, causing the production of milk
prolactin
________causes the milk ducts to contract and force milk to the nipples
oxytocin
Suction by the infant stimulates the breast tissue to produce more milk is called the ______-____ reflex
let-down
Full milk production takes _____ hours of breast feeding
72
________a thin yellow fluid, precedes milk production and is the infant’s first meal on earth
colostrum
mothers milk absorbs where in the infant
directly from the stomach
Breast-fed babies have fewer bacterial and viral infections, fewer allergic problems and they experience less diarrhea than non breast-fed babies due to _____ _____, and ______ in the milk
white cells and antibodies
does breast milk in fluence the intestinal flora of the baby?
yes... it inhibits the growth of pathogenic bacteria
Both _______ and ______ are okay for the mother to take while breast feeding. Post-partum thrombophlebitis is common, and these drugs may be needed, so it is lucky the mother can take either of them (or both), otherwise err on the side of caution as many drugs are passed to the baby via breast milk
coumadin
heparin
The production of breast milk in women and also men who are not breast feeding is?
Galactorrhea
Galactorrhea is due to excess _______ secretion by the pituitary
prolactin
This condition may result in amenorrhea and decreased libido in both men and women
Galactorrhea
Drugs which suppress body levels of _________ are the most common cause of prolactin hyper-secretion
dopamine
_______ and _______ stimulate prolactin secretion
progesterone and HCG
lactaion overrides ________
lactaion overrides dopamine
5 d's to look for in nipple exam?
discharge
depression or inversion
discoloration
dermatological changes
deviation
pagets is usually around the______
and is discolored what color?
nipple
red flakey
ducts that plug up
tubercles
inveverted nipples are not a concern when?
not in childhood or adolesence
when doing breast exam to check for discharge should you squeeze the nipple?
no... it hurts... you support under with one hand and press down with other
nipples do what after child birth?
darken
4 positions for breast exam...
slide 24
1. arms on hips
2. arms above the head (how big are you? I'm this big)
3. reaching forward with both arms
4. palms press together in front of abdomin
males and females have milk line all the way down to _____ _____
the pubis
do summary nipples have to be removed for health reasons?
nope
if nipple is squeezed alot by woman will it produce milk?
yes if done regularly it will irritate the ducts and produce milk
retracted nipple or dimpling signs of?
cancer
to palpate tail of spence where do you squeeze?
upper inside quadrant of breast
Screening for breast cancer:
Clinical breast exam by a professional:
Under 40: every ___-___ years
over 40 every?
1-3

year
yearly mamogram starting at what age?
40
Breast self exam:
Monthly, ____-____ days after menstrual period
3-7
fybrocystic disease lumps are painful and tender in breasts... are cancer cysts?
no
Do fibroyd cysts tend to regress when menses begins?
yes
breast self exam...
Stand before a mirror in three positions
hands at_______
hands over _________
hands pressed firmly on ______
sides
head
hips
fibroyd cysts are larger or smaller and more or less painful in the premenstrual period?
larger and more painful
fibroyd cysts most common in women of what ages?
30-50
women with fibrocystic disease should self examine how often and have a pro exam how often?
self exam- 1 time a month
pro exam- 1 time every 6 months
does fibrocystic disease cause an increase in occurance of breast cancer?
no... unless there is atypical changes in ductal epithelium
Fibrocystic disease:
Fluid-filled cystic lesions should be aspirated by a doctor(the fluid drawn off with a syringe and needle): biopsy is indicated if fluid is______?
bloody
what is a causative factor of fybroid cysts?
estrogenic hormones
breast fibers in crossfire of stimulating and turn off hormones
does giving up coffee have any effect on fibrocystic disease?
yes... eliminating caffeine does have a positive effect
xeno means?
stranger
assmetry because cancer is pulling breast _____?
in
women over 20 should do a self exam how many days after period?
3-5
fibrocystic disease--- stop wearing____ and cut out _______ can work wonders
bra
caffiene
If premenopausal with breast pain and tenderness, stop wearing a bra and discontinue coffee (studies showing ___-____% of women got over breast pain with these modifications).
90-95%
Consider taking natural progesterone (such as Progestelle®) for what?
fibrocystic disease
Round or oval, firm, rubbery solitary masses in young women, usually in 20’s or 30’s
The mass is movable and not fixed to surrounding tissue
fibroadenomas
Multiple fibroadenomas are found in ____% of patients who have them
15
if fibroadenomas are found by biopsy should anything else be done?
nope... don't need to
intraductile papilomas how many cancerous??
1 of 3
quadrants of breast cancer in quadrants
65 upper outer quadrant
10% in all other 3
5% around nipple
growns like a strawberry and bleeds
introductal papiloma
introductal carcinoma doesit spread outside the duct?
nope
false positive in fine needle technique is more or less probable
more
Small benign tumors of the breast
Grow in the milk ducts
May cause bleeding; thus masquerading as possible cancer
These should all be removed because they bleed and because they might possibly degenerate into cancer later on.
intraductile papillomas
which breast biopsy is easier for the pathologist to read fine needle or core needle biopsy?
core needle is easier
which is more common... false positive or false negative breast biopsies?
false negatives
new cases breast cancer a year?
deaths?
diagnosed carcinoma citu?
211000
40000
56000
one of___ women will develope breast cancer
8
braca defect gene means?
breast cancer progressive in younger age
False positive diagnoses uncommon but do occur in about ___%
2%
About ____% of suspicious breast lumps prove to be cancerous.
40%
Cure rates are above ____% with a small, mammographically-detected hormone receptor-positive tumor and no positive lymph nodes
90%
With axillary lymph nodes involved, 5 yr survival drops to ___% and 10 yr survival is ___% for breast cancer
45%
25%