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28 Cards in this Set

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Eukaryotic cell
plants, animals, fungi
have a membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles
same basic structure
cells can eb specialized to perform particular functions
muscle cells
Prokaryotic cells
bacteria, archaea
no nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles
Cell size
must be small in order to function
smaller the cell greater the surface are to volume ratio
>surface area to vol. ratio=more efficient
determines nutrients in to waste out
Cell membranes
regulates the substances allowed in and out of the cells between the cell organelles and cytosol

detect chem messengers arriving at the cell surface
link adjacent cells together by membrane junctions

anchor cells to the extracellular matrix
Cell membranes-structure
Basic- fluid-mosaic model
phospholipid bilayer intersperesed with protein and cholesterol molecules
Phospholipids are amphipathic

flexible like olive oil
Integral proteins
amphipathic

bound to hydrophobic interior the phospholipid bilayer
may or may not extend from one side o the membrane to the other
Peripheral proteins
bound to the interior or exterior surface of the membrane, usually to integral proteins
most often on cytosolic
shape and motility
Glycocalyx
carbohdydrate chains on some proteins and lipids attached to the cytoplasmic surface
fingerprint provides cell identity enables cells to interalce with each other
Cholesterol
found only in animal cell membranes

reduces membrane permeability
keeps membrane at optimal level of fluidity
involved in vesicle formation
Integrins
transmembrane proteins that bind to specific proteins in extracellular matrix
link to membrane proteins on adajecent cells
holds cells together
Tight junctions
join epithelial cells
no extracellular space between cells
substances have to go through selectively permiable membrane
can't sneak in
Desmosomes
sporived spot like adhesions between adjacent cells
-stability, resists seperation
- skin
dense plaques on cytoplasmic side of membrane anchor intermediate filaments

cadherins- exten into the extracellular space and bind adjacent cells to each other like a zipper
Gap junction
found in cardiac muscle
allow direct communication between cells resulting in coordinated cellular activity
formed by channels/pores (bridge) connexons attache to each other and open and close like a gate
Nucleus
storage and transmission of genetic informatino to the next generation of cells
Structure
nuclear envelope- contains nuclear pores
nucleolus- site of rRna and proteins
chromatin
nucleoplasm
Ribosomes
in cytoplasm-single or in chains

protein factories in cells
can be free ribosome released into cytosol
or attached to rER and transported to another organelle then on to the Golgi apparatus
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)
near nucleus-membranel enclosed channels/flattend sacs called cisternae
protein processing
protein folding
quality control-defective proteins
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER)
network of membranous channels-no ribosomes
systhesis of lipids
detoxifies
releases calcium ions
Golgi apparatus
sorts proteins and then transports to necessary organelles
tiny sacs
recieves proteins from the rER
phosphates and carbohydrates can be added
distributes proteins withing vesicles to other parts of the cell or plasma membrane
Transport vesicles
transport pods
sends thing from one organelle to another with it can go to rER to Golgi and then Golgi can send it out
early Endosomes
relatively close to the plasma membrane
sorts vesicles either moves it on to the other organelles or it recycles it to the plasma membrane
late endosomes
located near Golgi apparatus and nucleus
transfer substances to lysosomes
some develop into lysosomes
Mitochondria
powerhouse of the cell
anerobic cellular respiration
site of Krebs cycle
oxidative phosphorilation
also play role in lipids involved with hormones estrogen and testosterone
Lysosomes
fluid is acidic
breaks down boacteria dn the debri from dead cells that have been engulfed by a cell
Peroxisomes
generates H2O2
removes oxygen from substances such as lipids, alcohol, toxins
prevealent in lipid metabolizing cells
involved in breaking down fatty acids into 2 carbon fragments (to use in ATP generation)
Cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments that functions in supporting cell structhrue/shape, cell movement and transport of cellular materials
actin-smallest
intermediate- medium
microtubules- largest
Actin filaments
made up of 2 g-actin twisted to form f-actin
determin s cell shape, the abilty of cells to move by amoeboid-like movements, cell diveison, and muscle cell contraction
Intermediate filaments
composed of twisted strands of several different proteins
contribute to cell shape and help anchor the nucleus.
Microtubules
maintain cell shape
intracellular movement- monorails spindle fibers
cell movement
cilia flagella