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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the two parts of the brain that help coordinate and refine muscle movement?
1. Basal Ganglia
2. Cerebellum
What is the main motor pathway the synapses directly or indirectly on lower motor neurons?
Corticospinal pathway
What type of neurons go directly to muscle cells?
Alpha nuerons
What are the three motor corticies and where are the located?
1. Primary motor cortex (M1) - rostral to the central gyrus
2. Supplemental motor cortex (M2) - primarily medial
3. Pre-motor cortex - rostral to the primary motor cortex
The frontal eye field is part of what motor cortex?
The pre-motor cortex
What is the function of M2?
It helps coordinate the final motor output with the primary motor cortex.
What area is the primary motor corext? The primary sensory cortex? The pre-motor cortex?
1. Area 4
2. Area 1, 2, 3
3. Area 6
How many layers does the neocortex have? The allocortex?
1. 6
2. 3
What part of the brain deals with the force of contraction of a muscle as well as the timing of firing?
Primary motor cortex
What variable has to do with force?
Frequency - the higher the frequency the higher the force
How would you describe the timing of the firing of the primary motor cortex and the firing of the target muscle?
The happen almost simultaneously
How would you describe the timing of the firing of the pre-motor cortex and the firing of the target muscle?
It fires before the muscle fires
Where do the premotor cortex neurons primarily project? Where do some of them project?
The primary motor cortex while a few go all the way down to the ventral horn.
Where does the pre-motor cortex sometimes get information from and what kind of information is it?
1. Posterior parietal cortex - proprioreception
When do the supplemental motor cortex neurons fire? Do they always result in a movement?
Before the pre-motor cortex neurons fire. No the can fire by just thinking about a movement while not resulting in one.
What are upper motor neurons?
Neurons that come off the cortex.
What is the result of the loss or damage of UMN (2)?
1. Weakness
2. Spasticity
What is actually responsible for the tension in the muscle?
Golgi organs
Where do lower motor neurons project?
They project to muscles
What disease targeted lower motor neurons?
Polio
What disease targets both UMN and LMN?
ALS (Lou Gehrigs's Disease)
What actually makes up a motor unit?
The alpha neuron and the muscle cells it innervates.
What is a twitch due to spontaneous activation of a motor unit? What could cause these?
1. Fasciculations
2. Caffeine or irritation of the motor neuron
What could happen if an alpha neuron dies?
A different alpha neuron could take control of the newly available muscle cells.
What does a denervated muscle cell do to call for help and what is it called? What can it be seen with?
1. Twitch
2. Fibrillation
3. EMG
What do you see in ALS? Fasciculations or fibrillations? Where is the first place that you see atrophy?
1. Fasciculations
2. Thenar eminence or the tounge
What is a therpeutic drug given to people with hyperactive muscles? What does it do?
1. Boulinum toxin
2. Causes the presynaptic receptors to internalize and then cuts up the proteins needed for vesicle docking
What does Botulinum A target?
Synaptobrevin or VAMP
What does Botulinum B target?
SNAP 25
Is the affect of botulinum toxin permanent?
No
If you have damage to the primary motor cortex, what is the result and why? What type of muscle is this effect seen in?
1. Contralateral motor loss due to the decussation of the pyramids
2. Distal musculature
In a lesion to the primary motor cortex, why is the axial musculature spared?
It is innervated bilaterally by the ventral corticospinal tract.
Damage to the corticobulbar tract results in what?
Paralysis of the contralateral face below the forehead. Sometimes the tounge is spared.
Damage to the premotor cortex results in what(2)?
1. Slow, jerky movements
2. Affected visually guided tasks
Damage to the supplementary motor cortex results in what?
Loss of motor planning - apraxia
What is the loss of motor planning called?
Apraxia
What are the results of primary hydrocephalus?
1. Dementia
2. Apraxia
3. Incontinence
What are the waves of increasing pressure in primary hydrocephalus called?
Alpha waves
What is the only way to diagnose primary hydrocephalus?
Put a device in the brain to measure alpha waves.
How do you treat primary hdrocephalus?
Shunt
What happens with a lesion to the posterior parietal cortex?
1. Loss of intrapersonal space maps
2. Hemi-motor neglect (damage is on the non-dominant side)
What two situations would you see both eyes looking in the same direction?
1. Seizure (eyes look contralateral to seizure side)
2. Hemi-pons lesion (look contralateral to paralyzed side)
Twisting of the arms to the outside is called?
Decerebrate
Twisting of the arms to the inside is called?
Decorticate
Which has a higher lesion? Decerebrate or Decorticate?
Decorticate
Of the specific spinal tracts, which controls fine motor movements?
Corticospinal tract
What is the breakdown of the corticospinal tract?
1. Primary motor cortex - 40%
2. Area 6 - 20%
3. Parietal lobe - 40%
What do corticobulbar fibers control and where does the tract run? What areas comprise the tract?
1. Face
2. Genu of the internal capsule
3. Area 4 and 6
What does the corticorubral tract become?
Rubrospinal tract
What does the corticorubral tract do? What does it affect?
1. Talks to the red nucleus then talks to the alpha neurons
2. Torso, head and arms
Where do corticopontine fibers go?
Pontine nucleus where they synapse and then crossover using the middle cerebellar peduncule to communicate with the opposite side of the cerebellum.
Which tracts all are modulatory via the cerebellum (3)?
1. Corticothalamic
2. Corticostriatal
3. Corticopontine
What tracts are all responsible for direct movement(4)?
1. Corticospinal
2. Corticobulbar
3. Corticoreticular
4. Corticorubral