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35 Cards in this Set

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powder
intimate mixtures of dry finely divided drugs with/without excipients and can be used either internally or externally
advantages of powders
1. wide choice of ingredients and dosage can be easily achieved for patient administration
2. increased stability as compared to solution
3. large dose which can't be administered in other forms, can be administered as powder
4. a rapid dispersion of drugs occurs in stomach when given in powder forms than in compressed form
5. powder can be dispersed in water or another liquid and more easily swallowed
limitations of powder
1. if taste of drug isn't good, powder isn't the dosage form of choice
2. drugs which deterioate readily in exposure to atmosphere should not be dispensed as powders
4 methods to mix powders
1. trituration
2. spatulation
3. sifting
4. tumbling
trituration
mixed with mortal and pestle
two types of mortal and pestle
1. wedgewood mortar used for pulverizing and grinding because of rough inner surface
2. glass mortar used for simple mixing and mixing colored materials and dyes
spatulation
powder spatula is used and powders are mixed on a pill tile
-adequate for mixing small amounts of powders and combinations of powders having same densities
sifting
helpful for powders that resist mixing by trituration
examples of powders undergo sifting
very light powders like magnesium oxide and charcoal can be completely mixed by shaking them through a sieve
tumbling
mixing powders by shaking or rotating them in a closed container - used where two+ extremely light powders are being combined
problems encountered during mixing
1. crystalline salts are mixed best by trituration in mortar - surface of mortar grows smooth
2. electrification
3. packing
4. physical immiscibility
5. dampening or liquefaction
electrification
substance repels each other when mixed
-due to resistance to admixture or electrical charges
packing
powders are pressed heavily during trituration
-avoided by triturating lightly and scraping sides of mortar frequently with spatula
physical immiscibility examples
-mixing resinous materials with granular salts
-mixing heavy powder with a light one
dampening or liquefaction (3 reasons occurs)
-most troublesome problem, why occurs:
1. by absorption of moisture from air (deliquesent or hydroscopic)
2. giving up moisture to the air and liquefy during process
3. lowering the melting point of mixture (eutectic mixture)
eutectic mixtures
certain organic compounds (phenol, aldehydes, ketones) are mixed with varying proportions
two ways to handle eutectic mixtures
1. mixing each compound with equal amount of inert diluent (lactose, starch, talc) and combing diluted powders with light trituration
2. mixing materials together and allow to liquefy and adding sufficient diluent to absorb the eutectic mixture and remain as a powder
three basic rules of mixing powders
1. when there are different physical states (granular salts and fine powders) reduce each powder separately to fine particles before mixing
2. when mixing powder with different densities put the light powder first and then the heavier one on it
3. when mixing small amounts of drug to a bulk of powder, use geometric dilution
geometric dilution
small weight of drug is first triturated with equal bulk of diluting powder
-next mixed with equal amounts of diluent
-process repeated until all powders are intimately mixed
classification of powders
1. bulk powders
2. divided powders
3. special powders
bulk powders
patient measures out their own dose
examples of bulk powder
-dusting powder
-powders used internally
-powders used for making solution
-powders used for inhalation
divided powders
single doses of powdered drug mixtures individually enclosed in paper, cellophane, or metallic foil wrappers/packets
special powders
1. effervascent salt
2. dentifrices
3. insufflations
4. powder aerosols
effervascent salt
powders/granules containing sodium bicarbonate, a suitable organic acid or inorganic acid and medicinal agents
-when mixed with water, the acid and base react to form carbon dioxide
advantages of effervascent salt
1. mask unpleasant taste of drugs
2. carbon dioxide stimulates the flow of gastric juice and also accelerate absorption of many drugs
3. favorable psychological effect on patient
4. stability is enhanced since stored in low moisture content packages
preparation of effervascent salt (2)
1. heat method
2. wet method
heat method of preparation of effervascent salt
blending of all components with the inclusion of 15-20% of acid ingredient as citric acid monohydrate and heated on a bath
-mole of water released from citric acid during heating moisten powder and granules are formed from moisten powder mass
wet method of preparation of effervascent salt
critic acid is moistened and added to sodium bicarbonate
-granules are formed from partially fused mass
dusting powders
powders used for external use only
properties of dusting powders
1. homogeneous
2. free from local irritation
3. free flowing
4. uniform spreading and covering capability
5. good adsorptive and absorptive capability
dentrifrices
powders which are used to clean teeth
insufflations
finely divided powders intended for application to body cavities such as tooth sockets, ear, nose, throat, etc
powder aerosols
dispensed as aerosols in pressurized push button containers
examples of powder aerosols
antiperspirants and deodorants