• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/15

Click to flip

15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Sulfonamides (Drugs):
Sulfacytine - Oral-absorbable
Sulfisoxazole - Oral-absorbable
Sulfamethizole - Oral-absorbable
Sulfadiazine - Oral-absorbable
Sulfamethoxazole - Oral-absorbable
Sulfapyridine - Oral-absorbable
Sulfadoxine - Oral-absorbable
Sulfasalazine - Oral-non-absorbable
Sodium sulfacetamide - Topical
Mafenide acetate - Topical
Silver sulfadiazine - Topical
Sulfonamides (MOA):
Compete with PABA; Inhibit dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS)
PABA analogs
Bacteriostatic
Sulfonamides (Indications):
Broad spectrum: Active against G(+), G(-), chlamydia trachomatis and some protozoa
Synergistic (bactericidal) when combined with trimethoprim or pyrimethamine
Urinary tract infection
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is the drug of choice for Pneumocystis jirovecci pneumonia and Toxoplasmosis
Sulfasazaline is used in ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory bowel disease
Sulfonamides (Kinetics):
Metabolized in liver; eliminated by kidney
Most are oral with some being topical
Sulfonamides (Adverse Reactions):
Urinary tract disturbances (Crystalluria, hematuria or obstruction)
Crystalluria can be treated by administration of sodium bicarbonate and fluids
Hematopoietic disturbances - provoked in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
Stevens-Johnson syndrome - skin and mucous membrane eruption
Sulfonamides (Resistance):
Mutations that cause overproduction of PABA
Mutations that cause production of a plasmid-encoded DHPS that has a low affinity for sulfonamides
Mutations that impair permeability to the drugs
Trimethoprim (MOA):
Selectively inhibits bacterial DHFR
Bacteriostatic
Trimethoprim/TMP-SMZ (Indications):
Trimethoprim - Urinary tract infection
TMP-SMZ - pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP)
Trimethoprim/TMP-SMZ (Adverse Reactions):
Trimethoprim - Megaloblastic anemia, granulocytopenia
TMP-SMZ - GI upset, renal damage, CNS disturbances
Trimethoprim/TMP-SMZ (Resistance):
Reduced cell permeability
Overproduction of DHFR
Altered DHFR with reduced drug binding
Fluoroquinolones (Drugs):
Norfloxacin
Ciprofloxacin - the most active against G(-) (P. aeruginosa)
Enoxacin
Ofloxacin
Lomefloxacin
Pefloxacin
Levofloxacin - superior activity against G(+), including S. pneumoniae
Moxifloxacin
Gemifloxacin
Fluoroquinolones (MOA):
Blocks DNA synthesis by inhibiting topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV
Fluoroquinolones (Indications):
Active against various G(+) and G(-) bacteria
Urinary tract infection and bacterial diarrhea
Ciprofloxacin is a drug of choice for prophylaxis and treatment of anthrax
Respiratory fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin) have enhanced activity against G(+) and are used for RTI
Fluoroquinolones (Kinetics):
Oral absorption impaired by divalent cations (e.g., antiacids)
Widely distributed in body fluids and tissues
Most are excreted by kidney
Moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin are eliminated through nonrenal mechanism
Levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin - once daily dosing possible
Fluoroquinolones (Adverse Reactions):
GI upset (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea)
CNS (headache, dizziness, insomnia)
Skin rash, photosensitivity
QT prolongation (potential arrhythmia)
Arthropathy (not routinely recommended for <18-yr old)
Tendinitis, tendon rupture