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19 Cards in this Set

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Who did the research on double- helical model for the structure of DNA
James Watson and Francis Crick
transformation
a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell
bacteriophages
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage. (meaning “bacteria–eaters”),
4 bases present in double helix DNA strand
A(Adenine), T(thyamine)
C(cytosine),G(Guanine)
A pairs with T, and G pairs with C
double helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
who did help Watson and Crick proposed double helix strand
Linus Pauling &
Rosalind Franklin (her photo)
semiconservative model
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand.
origin of replication
Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins.
DNA polymerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to
the existing chain.
replication fork
A Y–shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
leading strand
The new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5′ → 3′ direction continuously by DNA Polymerase III.
lagging strand
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork
Okazaki fragment
A short segment of DNA synthesized on a template strand during DNA replication. Many Okazaki fragments make up the lagging strand of newly synthesized DNA
DNA ligase
An enzyme that attaches pieces( okasaki fragments) of lagging strang together to form a single new DNA strand.
primer
a short stretch of RNA with an available 3′ end
Primase
an enzyne that joins RNA nucleotides together one at a time, making a primer complementary to the template strand at the location where initiation of the new DNA strand will occur
DNA polymerase I
replaces the RNA nucleotides of the primers with DNA versions, adding them one by one onto the 3′ end of the adjacent Okazaki fragment
Helicase
an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands
nuclease
a segment of the strand containing the damage is cut out (excised) by a DNA–cutting enzyme called