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22 Cards in this Set

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Explain the process of protein synthesis. Begin with the attachment of the mRNA to the small ribosome sub unit and end with a completed protein. Include the components of the process, the enzymes involved and the steps of the process.
Sequence, f-Met, ribosome units, tRNA, codon-anticodon are all explained.
What is genetic engineering?
Through genetic engineering, scientists hope to correct genetic disorders. If a person had a genetic disorder cured by gene therapy, replacing defective genes in his/her body cells, would only effect their cells and not the reproductive cells so their children would most likely not benefit genetically from this gene therapy.
By our changing their genetic material, certain kinds of bacteria can be used to make life-saving substances such as human insulin. What advantages does this insulin have over that used years ago? What other substances might be produced in this way to benefit mankind?
Because the code for making human insulin is coded into the bacteria, they produce human insulin. This is an advantage to people using insulin, because there are fewer side effects from the human insulin than from the insulin that people used to have. That insulin used to be extracted from cows and/or pigs and many people were allergic to it. In the future, hormones, enzymes, and other chemicals that may be needed by humans might be produced, thus saving many lives.
DNA can help to solve crimes. Explain why DNA is useful in such situations.
With the exception of identical twins, etc., the DNA of every person is different from that of every other person. In solving crimes, DNA samples can be taken from suspects and compared to DNA that was found at the crime scene and can help to establish whether or not the suspect was actually present at the crime.
Many people fear the advancements being made in the area of genetic engineering. What are they afraid might happen?
Many people fear that genetic engineering is moving faster than it can be controlled. They fear that scientists, in their efforts to make money and develop new technology, may not consider what is best for mankind. They fear that scientists may develop deadly microbes and release them into the environment. They fear that scientists may develop new plant and animal species and release them in to the environment without knowing their impact on a fragile ecosystem. Farmers and ranchers fear that with the development of new plant and animal species for human consumption that large companies will charge enormous fees, since the companies own the patents, and this will force the farmers and ranchers out of business. Other fear that clones will be developed for the express purpose of fighting our wars, or providing organs for donation.
Scientists have developed techniques of cloning plants and small animals. Describe one social or ethical problem that could result if humans were able to clone themselves.
May vary, but must describe an actual social or ethical problem with supporting details.
What advantage might there be of knowing the location of genes such as cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy?
Locating these genes may make it possible to discover why they are defective and to develop the technology for repairing or replacing them.
What is amniocentesis? When would this procedure be used? What can be learned through amniocentesis? What possible problems may result from this procedure?
Amniocentesis is a procedure used to obtain fetal cells for examination. Chemical tests to the fetal cells can detect genetic disorders. Since a long needle is used to withdraw fluid surrounding the fetus, there is a (slight) risk of infection or of injury to the fetus.
How might recent advances in genetic engineering, including cloning, potentially affect the course of evolution?
The answer should include 4 of the following:

1. Deletion of human flaws will increase the human population and put further burden on other species and the environment.

2. New organisms could evolve and compete with existing species.

3. The frequency of alleles in the gene pool of any species may change.

4. The environment could be changed in a way that would harm or destroy existing species.

5. Rapid artificial selection for specific characteristics could take place within a species.

6. A species could be wiped out due to the lack of genetic diversity.

7. The genetic diversity of a species could increase, increasing the viability of that species.
Construct a single strand of DNA, using beads to represent 12 bases.

red = adenine green = thymine blue = cytosine
yellow = guanine orange = uracil
Write the letters of the bases in the space below.
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ __ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Construct the matching strand of DNA.
Write the letters of the matching strand in the space below.
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Unzip your double strand of DNA and construct the matching strand of mRNA by stringing the beads in the correct order.
Write the codons in your mRNA in the space below.
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Chemically inserting genes from one organism into another is an example of?
a. crossbreeding
b. genetic engineering
c. hybridization
d. inbreeding
Moscow tomato plants have been found to be susceptible to a specific disease. Scientists have used genetics to change the plant to make it more disease resistant. By doing this they have changed the plant from its original form.



Based upon your research, write an essay describing the pros and cons of the following statement:



Changing plants genetically to benefit people is acceptable regardless of the possible effects on our ecosystem.
Students bring up pros and cons of genetically changing plants. Genetic technology is also mentioned. Responsibility of ethical and social issues and problems involved in genetics are included.
Which of these is used as a source of fetal cells for analysis and subsequent genetic counseling?
a. amniotic fluid
b. aqueous fluid
c. blood plasma
d. urine
A mutation is caused by a change in?
a. birthrate
b. color
c. genes
d. environment
Sickle cell anemia is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in blood cells. The cause of the abnormal hemoglobin protein is the replacement of the amino acid valine with the amino acid lysine. What is this kind of alteration called?
a. malnutrition
b. transgenic
c. radiation
d. nondisjunction
e. mutation
You are a genetic counselor and a very distraught couple comes into your office with a child who has cystic fibrosis. The husband accuses the wife "You caused this! It's well known that mothers who drink have sick babies!"
What would be the most accurate information you could give this couple?
a. We don't know how this disease is caused, but research is making progress every day.
b. It is our theory that this disease is based on many factors that are too complicated to understand.

c. Cystic fibrosis is caused by both parents who contribute a faulty gene.
d. The facts of science are too complicated and you don't have the training to comprehend it clearly.

e. The two of you must be closely related.
What is the process called when an egg is removed, fertilized outside of the body, and then implanted in the womb?
a. artificial insemination
b. cloning
c. in vitro fertilization
d. surrogate motherhood
Genetic engineering can be used to produce:
a. human growth hormone
b. insulin
c. interferon
What equipment can be used to determined the genetic fingerprint of a suspect?
a. Microscope
b. Photospectrometer
c. Centrifuge
d. Gel Electrophoresis
Explain the process of DNA replication. Include a diagram in your answer. Begin with the DNA helix unzipping and end with the completion of the replication process. Your explanation should include the major enzymes involved, the function of each enzyme, the other components utilized, their role and the steps of the process.
Enzymes, primers, nucleotides, correct sequence, leading and lagging strands are all described.