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90 Cards in this Set

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Mendel
studied patterns of trait inheritance (with pea plants)
Friedrich Miescher
swiss biologist, discovered deoxyribonucleic acid
Devries, Correns, Tschermak
independently rediscovered Mendels work
Hardy & Weinberg
laws of population genetics
Morgan
'genes' are found on chromosomes
Griffith
first transformation experiment, DNA could be the genetic stuff
Beadle & Tatum
'one genes codes for one polypeptide chain'
Avery, McLeod, McCarty
1th to prove DNA is the genetic stuff
Chargaff
T=A, C=G
Hershey & Chase
second to prove DNA is the genetic stuff
Watson, Crick, Wilkins, Franklin
determined DNA is a double helix
Meselson & Stahl
proved DAN replicated semi-conservatively
Nirenberg & Khorana
broke the genetic language code
whats the difference between a trait and an allel?
trait: actual thing (eye color)
allel: different flavors(blue, green, brown)
3 names of the 'acid' found by Miescher:
nuclein
nucleic acid
deoxyribonucleic acid
what do population genetics explain?
how recessive traits stay constant in a stable population
what is a polypeptide?
chain of amino acids, fundamental building blocks of proteins
what was Watson, Crick, Franklin, & Wilkin's work published in?
Nature
what kind of reaction links together amino acids?
dehydration synthesis (condensation)
Definition of transformation:
alter genes or an organism by incorporating DNA from an outside source
what bacteria cauases pnemonia?
Streptococcus pnemonia
describe "S"
smooth, virulent, polysaccharide slime coat covering recognition glycoproteins, can't be detected by immune system
describe "R"
rough, non virulent, no polysicaahride coat, detected by immune system and is killed before taking over
why does "R" not have a slime coat?
deletion mutation
what happens when:
"S" alive in mouse?
"R" alive in mouse?
"S" dead in mouse?
"S" dead + "R" alive in mouse?
dies
lives
lives
dies
the ability for "R" to make slime coats is becuase of what?
the transforming factor
RNase stands for:
which:
ribonuclease, kills RNA
DNase stands for:
which:
deoxyribonuclease, kills DNA
4 characteristics of a transforming factor (Avery, McLeod, McCarty)
centrifugation, electrophoress, spectophotometry, chemical analysis
what was proved with centrifugation?
the t.f. had an extremely high molecular weight
what was proved with electrophoresis?
t.f. moved rapidly so it carries a long ionic charge
what was proved with the spectophotometry?
t.f. absorbs UV light the best at 260 nm
what did the chemical analysis prove?
nitrogen:phosphorus was 1.67:1
% thymine= ?
% cytosine= ?
% adenine
% guanine
whos work did Chargaff prove wrong? what did he say?
Levine, that all 4 bases were equal in consentration
what are the only two amino acids that contain sulfur?
methionine & cysteine
what are all viruses?
which means?
obligate parasites, they must be inside another cell to copy
what kind of virus attacks bacteria?
phage/bacteriophage
2 things a virus is made of:
nucleic acid, protein capsid
nucleic acid inside of a virus can be:
DNA or RNA, single or double stranded, ring (prokaryote) or linear (eukaryote)
what were the 2 iostopes used by Hershey and Chase? and what did they tag?
P32- acids
S35- proteins
what did Franklin used to show the DNA shape?
x-ray crystallography
2 kinds of nitrogen used by Meselson and Stahl:
N14- 'light' nitrogrn
N15- 'heavy' nitrogen
what molecule was used to represent the densities of DNA?
CsCl isotopes
what were the 3 ideas of how DNA replicates?
conservative, semi-conservative, dispersive
what was the conservative theory?
the double helix of the parent stays in tact and a new double helix is copied off the parent strand
what was the semi-conservative theory?
one strand of the parent DNA separates from the other, each daughter cell gets one copy from the parent and one new strand is made
what was the dispersive theory?
each of the 2 strands is segmented apart and each daughter cell gets parts of old and new strands
describe nitrogen experiment:
bacteria made of N15, let bacteria replictae twice (in only N14), put in centrifuge
which theory of replication was proved correct?
semi-conservatives
what part of the cell cycle does DNA replication take place?
synthesis
how much energy is required to break one hydrogen bond?
2 phosphate2
what enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds?
helicase
how many replicating bubbles are in prokaryotes?
in eukaryotes?
one
many
how fast can eukaryotes build new DNA?
prokaryotes?
50 nucleotides/second
500 nucleotides/second
why do eukaryotes take so long to replicate?
because they check for mutations
what enzyme breaks the "ladder" of the DNA? why? what are these bonds calles?
topoisomerase, to relieve stress in the DNA, phosphodiester bonds
which way does DNA replicate?
bi-directional (both ways)
what are the points on the ladder of DNA where the hydrogen bonds between the bases are being opened?
replicating forks
what carbon do nucleotides join onto?
3'
what direction does DNA always build? (?'-?')
5'-3'
when does an RNA primer get placed on DNA?
when the 3' OH is missing
what is the enzyme that places the RNA primer?
RNA primase
how long is an RNA primer?
10-12 nucleotides
what enzyme 'cuts' out the RNA primer nucleotides?
excision endonuclease
which enzyme places, replaces, and checks DNA nucleotides?
polymerase
which enzyme 'patches' up the phosphodiester bonds?
DNA ligase
what is the name of the strand that builds continuously?
leading strand
what is the name of the strand that needs multiple RNA primers place on it?
lagging strand
what are the short little fragments of DNA called?
Okazaki fragments
how long is an average Okazaki frangment in a prokaroyote?
eukaryote?
1000-2000 nucleotides
100-200 nucleotides
what is placed in the DNA to stop the newly broken DNA sides to close back up?
single stranded binding proteins
which enzyme uses the 2 phosphates for energy to rebuild the DNA?
polymerase
what is the name for the thing that holds the 2 sides of the DNA polymerase together?
dimer
where are the single-strand binding proteins always located?
between the helicase and polymerase
what is always ahead of the helicase?
topoisomerase
what is the name for 'mitosis' of prokaryotes?
binary fision
what is the simple name of bacteria replication?
theta replication
what is it called when bacteria have sex?
conjugation
what is the long thing that injects the bacteria?
pilus
what are the short spike on the bacteria called?
fimbrae
what are fimbrae used for?
sticking to surfaces
what are the extra circles of DNA in bacteria called?
plasmids
how many genes does each plasmid usually have? how many is there in a rare case?
2-10
30
how many plasmids can each cell have?
50+
what are episomes?
when the plasmids pop into the bacterial chromosomes
when do plasmids replicate?
some when the ring chromosome replicates, some on their own schedule
what are 2 important genes some plasmids carry?
drug resistance
fertility factor
what method of replication is used when bacteria conjugate?
rolling circle
what is a cell called when it has the fertility factor?
when it doesn't?
what are the 'sexes' or these?
what does this factor allow the bacteria to do?
F+ has it, male
F= doesn't have it, female
grow a pilus