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15 Cards in this Set

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Describe the DSM-IV Multiaxial System
I. Clinical Disorders
II. Personality Disorders & Mental Retardation
III. General Medical Conditions
IV. Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
V. Global Assessment of Functioning (1-100)
What are the three criterion for mental retardation?
1. Subaverage general IQ (>70; 2 SD below mean).
2. Deficits in adapative funcitoning in at least 2 areas:
communicaiton, self-care, home living, social interpersonal, use of community, self-direction, academic skills, work, health
3. Onset before age 18.
When is the most commonly identified period for acquiring MR?
75% of MR occurs in the prenatal stage of gestation, or the first 8 weeks after conception.
What is the contribution of genetic factors in MR during the prenatal stage?
Genetic factors in this stage account for 5% of all MR (such as Down's Syndrome). In early development environmental factors account for more - poor maternal nutition, health habits, access to health care & exposure to toxins.
What are the problems that contribute to MR during the perinatal phase of gestation?
Perinatal stage, the fetus is one pound in utero to one month after birth. Problems include fetal malnutrition, hypoxia, trauma, prematurity, and viral infections. 10% off all MR is perinatal.
What are the causes of MR in postnatal development?
Postnatal development is > one month to less than 18 years. 10% of all MR occurs in this phase. Brought about by brain tumors, trauma, infection.
What is the rate of comorbidity for mental disorders among those with MR?
3 to 4 times the general population.
What are the most common comorbid mental disorders for those with MR?
ADHD, Mood Disorders, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Sterotypic Movement Disorders.
What is the sex ratio for MR?
Males to females = 1.5:1
What are the characteristic criteria for those with moderate MR?
1. IQs range from 40-55.
2. Anticipiated progression to 2nd grade level in academics.
3. Able to perform unskilled or semi-skilled work under supervision.
4. Tend to develop self-care and communication skills.
What are the characteristics of mild MR?
1. IQs range from 55-70.
2. 85% of all people with MR.
3. develop social and communication skills.
4.Minimal sensorimotor
impairment
5. Acquire skills up to 6th grade level.
What are the characteristics of severe MR?
1. IQs range from 25-40.
2. Significantly impaired in their ability to communicate.
3. During school age years, may learn to talk.
4. May be trained in very elementary self-care skills.
What are the characteristics of profound MR?
1. IQs fall below 25.
2. Significant impairment in sensorimotor functioning.
3. Need a highly structured environment.
4. Most likely have an underlying neurological basis for the disorder.
What are the essential features of Learning Disorders?
1. Performance on achievement tests are substantially below what would be expected for age, schooling, and IQ.
2. Learning problem interferes with academic achievement and ADLs.
3. Must be a significant discrepancy between IQ and achievement (2 SD)
What are associated features of Learning Disorders?
1. Poor self-esteem
2. Deficits in social skills
3. comorbidity with ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and depressive disorder.