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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
actual genetic instructions
external expression of coded instructions
homologous chromosome
higher organisms that have two copies of each chromosome, one from each parent
complete strand of DNA
amino acid
a linear series of amino acids make up protein
made up of a linear series of amino acids
enzymes are catalysts; control the direction of reactions, cause reactions to occur within a narrow range of temperature and pressure
attached to a backbone of sugar and phosphate molecules; form complementary base pairs
(deoxyribonucleic acid) - two strands in a coiled helix, each made up of a series of organic compounds called nucleotides
(ribonucleic acid) is a single strand of nucleotides
messenger RNA (mRNA)
moves from the nucleus out to the cytoplasm
transfer RNA (tRNA)
carries the amino acids to the ribosomes to be attached to the growing chain
amino acids are coded for by a sequence of three nucleotides
protein synthesis
nucleotide substitution
one base pair accidently substitutes for another
point mutation
change at a single point along a strand of DNA
chromosome mutation
change in the amount of genetic information or rearrangement of genetic information
chromosome deletion
loss of part of the chromosome, can be fatal if both homologous chromosomes have same deletion
chromosome duplication
part of the homologous chromosome is duplicated - can lead to chemical imbalance, ex. too much of a particular enzyme is made
chromosome inversion
chromsome breaks in two, part of it flips around and refuses - extrememly rare, partial sterility often results
chromosome translocation
two non-homologous chromosomes break and exchange segments
genetic recombination
meiosis shuffles existing variations into infinite new combinations
sexual recombination
creates an incredible number of new beings from a relatively small number of alleles
regular cell division; object is to make two identical diploid daughter cells
object is to turn one diploid cell into four haploid daughter cells (gametes); two complete cell divisions
one of each type of chromosome
organism with two of each type of chromosome
reduction division
homologous chromosomes line up at the center of the cell; for a brief time they are physically joined together (chiasmata); one homologous chromosome goes to each daughter cell (random)
independent assortment
the direction each chromosome takes during reduction division is random
crossing over
during reduction division chromosomes are briefly joined, during this the process of exchanging genes or groups of genes is called crossing over
genetic polymorphism
beneficial for the evolution of the species