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91 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
scientists that study fungi
Mycologist
an organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex organic substances for nutrition
Hetrotrophs
plants that get their nutrients from dead and decaying matter
Saprobes
a tangle of tiny filaments that create the body of a fungi
Hypha
a asexually produced fungal spore
Conidia
found in the cell walls of fungal hyphae
Chitin
the compound that adds stiffness to the cell wall of plants
Lignin
the symbiotic association of the mycelium of the fungus with the roots of certain plants
Mycorrihizae
a special stalk or branch of the mycelium
Conidiophore
the larger body made from many intertwined hypha
Mycelium
runner-like modified hyphae
Stolon
root-like modified hyphae; anchors the mold
Rhizoid
a sac in ascomycetes in which the sexual spres are formed
Ascus
a reproduction process in which two organisms exchange nuclear material through a temporary area of fusion
Conjugation
the fruiting body of ascomycota
Ascocarp
one of the minute slits in the epidermis of leaves, stems, etc through which gages are exchanged
Stomata
highly specialized roots, stems, and leaves, and specialized vascular tissue that function like miniature tubes to conduct food, water, and nutrients throughout the plant
Root-Shoot System
the alternation in an organism's life cycle of dissimilar reproductive forms
(haploid gametophyte stage and a diploid sporophyte stage)
Alternation of generations
the gamete producing phase in a plant
Gametophyte
leaves that are specialized for reproduction and bear the sporangia at their bases
Sporophylls
a club shaped structure formed when the sporophylls branches out from a shortened stem
Strobilus
gametangium that produces sperm
Antheridium
the spore-producing phase in the life cycle of a plant
Sporophyte
a part or organ serving as a lid or cover over spores
Operculum
gametangium that produces eggs
Archegonium
tiny green threads that spores germinate into
Protenema
claimed that the creator has intentially created plants to look like the parts of the body they could be used to cure
Doctrine of Signatures
an umbrella-like structure that often protects the sorus
Indusium
early, edible stage of various ferns
Fiddlehead
long, twisted, moist cells that scatter spores
Elaters
spores germinate into this tiny heart-shaped autotrophic gametophyte
Prothallus
the envelope of an ovule
Integument
the larger of the two kinds of spores characteristically produced by seed plants and a few fern allies; develops into a female gametophyte
Megaspore
the slender tube that penetrates an ovule and releases the male gametes
Pollen tube
usually occcur in small bundles, each bundle emerges from a base that is actually a greatly truncated branch
Needles
the smaller of the two kinds of spores characteristically produced by seed plants and some fern allies; develops into a male gametophyte
Microspore
a cell in the xylem of vascular plants
Tracheids
a minute opening opening in the ovule of a seed plant through which the pollen tube usually enters
Microphyle
carpels evolved from leaves; chambers in pistil were probably formed from a sporophyll (had sporangia on outer edges)
Foliar theory of the carpel
one male nucleus fertilize the egg nucleus, the other fuses with two other embryo sac nuclei to form a 3N cell that develops into the stored food
Double Fertilization
stored food; the nutritive tissue within seeds of flowering plants
Endosperm
a leaf of the embryo of a seed plant
Cotyledons
two seed leaves
Dicot
a cresent-shaped scar where the ovules was attached to the wall of the ovary, in plants
Hilum
the walls of a ripened ovary or fruit
Pericarp
one seed leaf
Monocot
the female gametophyte in flowering plants
Embryo sac
the hard inner layer of the pericarp
Endocarp
formed by fused carpels
Pistil
the outermost layer of the fruit wall
Exocarp
the pollen-bearing organ of a flower.
Stamen
the stalk-like portion of a stamen
Filament
modified, ovule-bearing leaf that hold ovules
Carpel
ovule-bearing or seed-bearing female organ of a flower;
Pistil
the middle, usually fleshy layer of a fruit wall
Mesocarp
receives the pollen in a flower
Stigma
two seed leaves
Dicot
The stamen consists of what?
Filament and Anther
long, slender neck of the pistil
Style
the male gametophytes in flowering plants
Pollen grains
the outer protective covering of a seed
Seed coat
encased in an ovary and made up of an integument and megasporangium
Ovules
horizontal stem that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes
Rhizomes
the fertilized, mature ovule of a flowering plant
Seed
reproductive structures that are formed from 4 whorls of modified leaves
Flower
clusters of sporangia
Sorus
the slender tube that penetrates the ovule and releases the male gametes
Pollen Tube
what is Coevolution?
occurs when an evolutionary change in one organism leads to an evolutionary change in another organism that interacts with it
Division Zygomycota
molds, Rhizopus (bread mold)
Divison Basidiomycota
club fungi - mushrooms, rusts, shelf fungi, etc
Division Ascomycota
sac fungi - yeasts, morels, truffels
Division Lycophyta
club mosses, quillworts
Division Sphenophyta
horsetails
Division Ginkgophyta
Ginkgo aka Ginkgo biloba aka maidenhair
Division Bryophyta
mosses
Division Gnetophyta
Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia
Division Hepaticophyta
liverworts
Division Basidiomycota
club fungi - mushrooms, rusts, shelf fungi, etc
Division Lycophyta
club mosses, quillworts
Division Sphenophyta
horsetails
Division Pterophyta
true ferns
Division Coniferophyta
confiers: pines, firs, spruces, bald cypress
Division Psilophyta
whisk fern
Division Cycadophyta
cycads
Division Deuteromycota
fungi imperfecti
Penicillin
Class Monocotyledonae
monocots
Class Dicotyledonal
dicots
Division Anthocerophyta
hornworts
Division Acrasiomycota
cellular slime molds
Division Myxomycota
plasmodial slime molds
Division Anthophyta
flowering plants