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61 Cards in this Set

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Population equilibrium among organisms and their environments resulting from continuous interaction and interdependency
Balance of Nature
Limiting factors that can act from outside the population (abiotic factors)
Extrinsic Limiting Factors
Limiting factors that can act from inside the population
Intrinsic Limiting Factors
Living, physical factors
Biotic Limiting Factors
Without life, physical factors
Abiotic Limiting Factors
Limiting factors can have the same effect regardless of how dense the population has become
Density Independent Limiting Factor
Limiting factors can act in proportion to how dense the population has become
Density Dependent Limiting Factor
Forces that disrupt a natural ecosystem
Disturbance
Occurs when two or more organisms use the same resource in a way that affects the birth rate or death rate of the competitors
Competition
Competition between members of the same species
Intraspecific Competition
The type of competition that exists betweeen members of different species
Interspecific competition
the ecological role that a species plays in a biological community; how you fit into things
Niche
Determines intensity of competition between individuals or species
Niche overlap
the natural environment of an organism
Habitat
It shows the full potential of species when there is no competition
Fundamental Niche
shows what a species can do in the presence of others
Realized Niche
Occurs when one species is a better competitor than another, and forces it into local extinction
Competitive Exclusion
To exist together peacefully in the same place or at the same time despite differences
Coexistence
Different species that move together
Mixed Species Foraging Flock
Different species use a different part of the resource if they live in the same area, habitat, or feed during the same time of day
Resource Partioning
Modify your physical shape through natural selection so species can coexist
Character Displacement
Exploit resources by using them up so there is nothing left for others
Scramble Competition
Engage in a face to face contest over limited resources
Contest Competition
Any area that an animal defends against other animals
Territory
The behavior of an animal in defining and defending its territory
Territoriality
Species that float from territory to territory looking to take an empty one over
Floaters
Any organism that eats another organism
Predator
The organism that is injured or killed and used for food
Prey
An organism that eats another by killing it and eating it
True Predator
Insects that lays their eggs in hosts, the young hatch and the host is eaten alive
Parasitoid
An animal that eats flesh
Carnivore
Prey upon plants
Herbivore
An organism that chases and then kills its prey
Active Pursuit
Lone predators
Solo Pursuit
A group of predators
Pack Pursuit
An organism that hides and waits for its prey to come to it
Ambush Predator
A bold, distinctive pattern of color characteristics of a poisonous or inedible organism used to warn off potential predators
Warning Coloration
Predetors evolve with their prey so to remain dominant
Coevolution
Theory suggests that when prey are numerous, the number of predators increaes, reducing the prey population, which in turn causes predator numbers to decline
Predator/Prey Cycles
A species that plays a critical role in the ecosystem and even if the species is a small part of the ecosystem, it keeps other species in check by keeping the number of that species at a stable level
Keystone Predators
Examines the ways in which behavior is adaptive, how behavior varies, and how it evolves
Behavioral Ecology
Bats that mainly eat flowers, fruit, nectar
Megachiropterans
Smaller bats that feed on insects, most of which are captured in flight
Microchiropterans
Ability of bats to hunt by sounds and to detect and locate objects by emitting high pitched sounds that reflect off objects and return to the ears of the animal
Echolocation
A special type of natural selection in which the sexes aquired distinct forms either because the members of one sex choose mates with particular features or because the competition for mates amoung members with those certain traits succeed
Sexual Selection
Male's appearance, his ability to thrive, suggest that he has good genes which will be passed on to his children
Good Genes Model
If the male can carry around huge tails or antlers and still avoid predators, feed himself, etc, he must be a great choice
Handicap Model
Females are simply making an aesthetic choice, like the way you look, posture, grooming, etc
Aesthetic Preference Model
Trait becomes reinforced generation after generation until it is greatly exaggerated, can be a dangerous burden
Runaway Selection
A pecking order established by fighting one another
Dominance Hierarchy
An order for getting mates
Pecking Order
Elaborate ritualized behaviors that include songs and dances
Courtship Display
The number of songs a male bird can sing and can be correlated to his reproductive success; the stock of skills
Repertoire
A curious courtship behavior in which the males offers something to a female to show that he is interested
Tidbitting
A courtship arena where birds compete by gathering together and performing for groups of females
Leks
A type of bird with many species
Bowerbirds
Little structures built to attract a female
Bowers
One male mate with several females
Polygynous
Males practice making structures because it takes several years before they can build a good enough bower to attract a mate
Practice Bower
Certain physical traits attract a mate and these traits become replaced by external objects, such as bower decoractions
Transfer Effect
When nature is out of whack, and if disturbances do not occur
Non-equilibrium Theory