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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
chain of being
species could be arranged in a linear sequence, like links in a chain; dates back to aristotle; also known as the scala natura (ladder of nature)
argument from design
all of nature is designed in accord with a predterermined, benevolent, and supernatural plan
john ray
started the natural theology philosophical school
william paley
revived natural theology; viewed the creator as the master gardener, or cosmic watchmaker
natural theology
maintained that every living thing was perfectly adapted to its way of life; fit between form and function in organisms was designed by the creator
carolus linnaeus
believed species were fized and distinct types and therfore could not evolve or change; grouped similar plants together, based on their reproductive structures; his systema natura is still used by modern botanists
system of hybridization
new species must be hybrids of existing species; ignored adaptation of species to changing conditions
george comte de buffon
theorized that animals were formed from an internal mold; two modern ideas: biogeography (georgraphical distribution) was important in understanding natural history and the environment can influence the basic nature of animals
theory of degeneration
new species were simply a degenerate version of the created species; ancestral types were created, then wandered to different parts of the world - experienced new conditions, climates
jeane baptiste de lamarck
best known for his theory of the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics; changes in the living body could be passed on to descendants; coined the term biology and invertebrate; thought evolution had to be both dredetermined and progressive
theory of organic progression
organisms changed along fixed and parallel paths
robert chambers
theory of system of linear development; claimed that man was descended from the lower animals; thought evolution was continuous and graduate
system of linear development
man was developed from the lower animals; thought evolution was continuous and gradual
charles darwin
eliminated chain of being, argument from design, and removed man from the center of creation as the Copernican revolution had removed the Earth from the center of the universe
robert fitzroy
captain of the Beagle; moody, intensely
H.M.S. Beagle
was to map the southern coast of south america, explore the interior, visit tropical islands, and native tribes along the way
origin of species
published by darwin in 1859; covered his theory of evolution by natural selection
alfred russell wallace
naturalist; race to publish theory of evolution by natural selection with charles darwin
struggle of the fittest
in every natural population, some varities must be better equipped to prevail in the struggle for existence
natural selection
evolution was a selective process
Thomas Malthus
published his Essay on the Principle of Population; wrote to counteract arguments that social progress could be achieved through a better understanding of nature; came up with the idea of the struggle for existence
struggle for existence
malthus proposed that population would increase geometrically, but resources could only increase arithmetically - would lead to a growing gap between too many people and too few resources