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17 Cards in this Set

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Benfits from Psychotherapy - Diversity Issues
All show improvement on GAS, mostly Hispanic Americans
Premature Termination - Diversity Issues
members of ethnic or minority groups are more likely than anglo to terminate therapy premeturely. African-Americans have a higher than anglo, but Asians have lower. Hispanics similar to Anglo.
Therapist-Client Matching - Diversity Issues
in terms of race, ethnicity, or culture it increases the duration of treatment but does not have consistent effects on other therapy outcomes. Terminating early did not affect African-Americans. Clear benefits only for Hispanic Americans.
Two Critical Procesess when working with culturally Diverse clients.
Credibility - client's perception that the therapist is an expert.
Giving - client's perception that he received something from therapy.
Cultural Competence of therapists involving three competencies - diversity issues
Awareness - Aware of their assumptions, values and beliefs.
Knowledge - attempt to understand the worldviews of culturally diverse clients.
Skill - Use therapeutic modalities and interventions that are apporpirate for culturlally different clients - not use same techniques for all clients.
Cultural Encapsulation by therapist - diversity issues
exhibitied when they a) define everyone's reality according to their own cultural assumptomns and stereotypes. b) diregard cultural differences. c) ignore evidence that disconfirms their beliefs d)rely on tech. and strategies to solve problems e) disregard their own cultural biases
Emic verses Etic Orientation - Diversity Issues
Emic - culture-specific theories, concepts, and research strategies - attempt to see things through eyes of culture
Etic - phenomena that reflect a universel orientation - all people the same. Traditionally psychology is Etic.
High versus Low Context Communication - Diversity Issues
High-Context communications - grounded in the situation, depends on group understanding, nonveerbal cues, unify culture, slow to change.
Low-conext communication - explicit, verbal part of a message - less unifying.
High typical of diverse groups and low anglo
Conseqences of Opression -
Internalized Opression
Conceptual incarceration
split-self Syndrome
Diversity Issues
Internalized Oppression - system beating, blaming, total avoidene of whites and denial of political signifcance of race.
Conceptual incarceration - adopting a white, anglo protestant worldview.
Split-self syndrome - polarizing oneself into "good" and "bad" components, wtht he bad components representing african american.
Fail to recongize resources.
Cultural verses Funcitonal Paranoia- diversity issues
Cultural paranoia - healthy reaction to racism - do not disclose becasue of fear of being hurt or misunderstood.
Functional Paranoia - General mistrust or suspicion.
White therapist often misinterpret the two.
Ridleys Model of paranoia based on being high/low functional paranoia and high/low cultural - diversity issues.
Intercultural Nonparanoiac Discloser
Functional Paranoiac
Healthy Cultural Paranoiac
Confluent Paranoiac
Intercultural Nonparanoiac Disclosuer - willing to self-disclose to african american or anglo therapist. low/low
Functional Paranoiac - nondisclosive to both african americna and anglo therapit due to pathology. high/low
Healthy Cultural Paranoiac - dislose to african american not anglo due to past experienes. low/high
Confluent Paranoiac - nondisclosing to african american and aglo, cobination of pathology and effects of racisim high/high
Sexual Prejudice and Heterosexism
sexual prejudice is a more precise term then homophobia.
Heterosexism - idealoligcal system that denies and stigmatizes among nonheterosexual forms of behaviro and identity.
Acculturation
Integration
Assimilation
Separation
Marginalization
Acculturation - degree diverse member adhers to dominate culture.
Ingegration - maintains own minority culture but also incorporates dominate culture (biculturalism)
Assimilariotn - accepts majority culture and reliquishing minority culture
Separation - withdraws form dominant and accepts own culture
Marginalization - reject both
Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model
5 steps
1 conformity
2 dissonance
3 resistance and immersion
4 introspection
5 integrative awareness


distinguishing between five stages that people experience as they attempt to understand themselves.
1 positive attitude toward and preference for dominant cultural values.
2 confusion and conflict over the contradictory appreciating and epreciating attidutes that one has toward the self and toward others.
3 activiely reject dominate society and exhibit appreciating attudes toward the self and toward members o their own group
uncertainty about the rigidyt of beliefs held in stage 3.
experience a sense of self-fulfilment with regard to ehir cultual identity and have as strong desire to eliminate all foms of oppression.
Can move forward or backward in stages.
Black Racial Identity Development Model
4
africnan american identitydevelopment is derectly related to racial oppression.
Precounter - whites as ideal
Encounter - Interest in developig african american identity due to race-related event.
Immersion/Emersion - Transition stage, struggle betwen old and emerging ideas about race.
Internalization/Commitment - adopts an african american world view and becgin to actively work to eradicate racism
White Racial Identity Development Model
6 stages
when white person first acknoledges racism.
Contact - oblivious to and unaware of racism, believe that everyone has an equal chance for success.
Disntegration - increasing contact with african americans - confusion...fooling self to believe that "all men are created equally".."My grandfather is really prejudiced, but I try not to be"
Reintegration - attempt to resolve conflict. Regression. White superiority - minority inferiority
psyudo-independence - personally jarring event or events cause to question racist views. recognizing unfair treatment
Immersion-Emersion - if reinforced explores meaning of being white. increased willingness to confront.
Automomy - internalizes a positive white identity respect for other cultures.
Multi-Systems approach - diversity
african americans respond to best. intervense at multiple levels and empowers teh family by directly incorporating its strength on to the intervention