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21 Cards in this Set

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acid rain
industrially produced sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere that damage forests, poisened lakes, and kill fish
boreal forest
the coniferous evergreen that dominates the cooler continental interior
concentric zone model
where urban land uses were neatly organized in rings around a highly focused central business district that contained much of the city's retailing and office functions
connectivity
how well its different locations became linked with one another through an improved transportation and communication infrastructure
counterurbanization
in which people leave large cities and move to smaller towns and rural areas
cultural assimilation
the process in which immigrants were absorbed by the larger host society
digital divide
suggests that the region's poor and underprivleged groups have significantly less access to Internet communications than the wealthy
ethnicity
a group of people with a common background and history identify with one another, often as a minority group within a larger society
federal state
where a nation allocates considerable political power to units of government beneath the national level
gentrification
involves the displacement of lower-income residents of central-city neighborhoods with higher-income residents of central-city neighborhoods with higher-income residents, the rehabilitation of deteriorated inner-city landscapes, and the construction of new shopping complexes, entertainment attractions, or convention centers in selected downtown locations
Group of 8 (G-8)
a collection of powerful countries (Japan, Germany, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Russia) that confers regurally on key global economic and political issues
location factors
the varied influences that explain why an economic activity is located where it is
Megalopolis
the largest settlement agglomeration in the US, includes DC, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York City, and Boston
North American Free Trade Agreement
extended the alliance to Mexico and laid out a 15-year plan for drastically reducing all barriers to trade and capital investment among the three nations
postindustrial economy
where human geographies are shaped by modern technology
prairie
dominated by tall grasslands in the East and by short grasses and scrub vegeatation in the West
sectoral transformation
refers to the evolution of a nation's labor force from one highly dependent on the primary sector to one with more employment in the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary sectors
tundra
a mixture of low shrubs, grasses, and flowering herbs that grow briefly in the short growing seasons of the high latitudes
unitary state
where the power is centralized at the national level
urban decentralization
in which metropolitan areas sprawl in all directions and suburbs take on many of the characteristics of traditional downturns
urban realms model
highlights new suburban growth characterized by a mix of peripheral retailing, industrial parks, office complexes, and entertainment facilities