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32 Cards in this Set

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what do diuretics do
they promote excretion of water and electrolytes
how do MOST diuretics work
they are natriuretic; they increase na excretion which causes the water to follow
what are the 2 loop diuretics
furosemide and torsemide
-emide
what are the thiazides?
chlorothiazide
hydrochlorothiazide
chlorthalidone
what are the thiazide like drugs
indamide and metolazone
what are the k sparing drugs
spironolactone
eplerenone
ameloride
triamterene
what is an example of the osmotic drug
mannitol
what allergy to watch for when prescribing the diuretics and why
sulfa drug allergy cuz thiazide and loops look like them
what ions are lost with diuretics
na and the counter cl ion
what are indications for diuretic use
hypertension
chronic cyclic edema
chronic renal failure
na retention induced by other drugs
hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria
diabetes insipidus
acute hyperuricaciduria
various drug overdoses
what are the most efficacious diuretics
loop - furosimide
what does furosimide do
blocks the active transport of ions in the loop of henle
what occurs with loop diuretics?
na and k transport is blocked
hypokalemia results
and the greater loss of ca and mg in the urine
what is the acute response to loops
increase in systemic venous capacitance (vasodilation)
what do loops do to the heart
decreases the left ventricular filling pressure
what is a use of loops in cancer malignancy
temporary way to reduce hypercalcemia
when do you use loops for treatment of hypertension
when thiazides do not work
what does loops do to k
induces hyopkalemia
therefore can treat pts with hyperkalemia with loops
if a patient has anion poisoning what do you give?
loop
what is the drug of choice to treat halide poisoning
loop; syporter also reabsorbs fluoride, iodide, bromide
what is a side effect of loops
hypokalemia and hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
hyperuricemia
hypomagnesemia
hypovolemia
where is the k lost due to loop
collecting tubule
what does loops interact with
aminoglycosides and digitalis(causing more k loss, and therefore arrhythmia)
sulfonylureas
li
nsaids- blunted diuretic response
and thiazide - synergism
how long does it take for thiazides to work
slow onset, long acting
what is the efficacy of thiazides in comparison to loop
they are less efficacious
what side effects do thiazides cause
hypokalemia and hyponatremia
what are the uses of thiazides
hypertension
diabetes insipidus
non-emergency edematous states
what are adverse effects of thiazides
hypokalemia
hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis
hyperuricemia
hyponatremia w/hypovolemia
hyperglycemia
allergic reactions
erectile dysfunction
what drug is an aldosterone antagonist
spironolactone
eplerenone
what are 2 drugs that prevent na transport in the collecting tubule and spares k
amiloride and triamterene
what drug has an anti-androgen effect
spironolactone cuz of the same structure steroid therefore causes gynecomastia and impotence
what is another use for osmotic diuretics
to decrease the pressure and volume of intraocular fluid and csf