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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the caloric needs for an infant younger than 6 months?
100-120 kCal/kg/day
What are the most common problems that arise in premature infants?
Respiratory distress syndrome. hypoglycemia, persistent PDA, infection/sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis
What is the different between caput succedaneum and cephalohematoma?
Caput: diffuse swelling or edema of the scalp, edema crosses suture lines, resolves within a few days

Cephalohematoma: subperiosteal hemorrhage, does not cross suture lines, resolves in wks to months
What is the next step in the management of a newborn female with bloody vaginal discharge in the first week of life?
Reassurance
2-3mm yellow pustule with red base (similar appearance to white-head) arising in first 24-72 hours, microscopic examination of pustular contents reveals numerous eosinophils, usually gone by 3 weeks.
Erythema toxicum neonatorium
What medications can be used to treat thrush in an infant?
Oral nystatin
What are preventative measure for SIDS?
Sleeping on the back, pacifier use when sleeping
What can you consider for a delayed anterior fontanelle closure?
Down syndrome, Rickets, achondroplasia, congenital hypothyroidism, increased intracranial pressure
What mnemonic can you use for the questions you should ask during an annual adolescent exam?
HEADSSS
Home environment
Education/employment
Activities
Drugs
Sexual Activity
Suicide/Depression
Safety
Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis
Measles (rubeola) infection
What is the signs/symptoms for measles?
Coplick spots on buccal mucosa after 1-2 days (white-gray spots with a red base)
Rash five days after prodrome onset: erythematous, maculopapular starting at the head then spreading to the feet -> lasts 4-5 days -> resolves from head down
What is the treatment for measles?
- Supportive therapy
- Monitoring and treating bacterial superinfections such as pneumonia or otitis media
- Vitamin A
What is the lymphadenopathy seen in rubella vitus?
Suboccipital and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy
What rash starts at the face, then generalizes?
Rubella virus
What are the characteristic features of coxsackie hand, foot, and mouth disease?
- Constitutional fever and anorexia
- Oral vesicles on the buccal mucosa and tongue
- Small, tender, maculopapular/vesicular rash on the hands, feet, and sometimes buttocks
- Duration is 3-5 days without complications
What are the characteristic findings of scarlet fever rash?
- Rash is coarse ("sand-paper-like"), erythematous and blancing
- Rash starts on the trunk then generalizes, but spares palms and soles
- Rash is most prominent in skin creases of axilla and groin
What are the characteristic symptoms of roseola infantum (HHV-6)?
- Sudden high fever (exceeding 102 F) for 3-4 days
- Child has no other signs of infection and often acts/plays normally
- Rash that appears when fever dissipates and starts on the trunk then spreads over entire body and lasts < 24 hours
- Other common findings: erythematous papules on soft palate and uvula, mild cervical LAD< edematous eyelids, bulging anterior fontanel in infants
What is the treatment for roseola infantum?
Supportive care, anti-pyretics as needed
What are the antibiotics used for pertussis?
Azithromycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, TMP-SMX
What newborn skin finding matches the following description?
- 2-3mm yellow pustule with red base (similar appearance to white-head) arising in first 24-72 hours, microscopic examination of the pustular contents reveals numerous eosinophils
- spider-webbing/marbling of the skin
- Intense reddening of gravity dependent side and blanching of the nondependent side with a line of demarcation between the two
- Due to accumulation of sweat beneath eccrine sweat ducts that are obstructed by keratin
2-3mm yellow pustule with red base (similar appearance to white-head) arising in first 24-72 hours, microscopic examination of the pustular contents reveals numerous eosinophils
- Erythema toxicum neonatorum

spider-webbing/marbling of the skin
- Cutus marmorata

Intense reddening of gravity dependent side and blanching of the nondependent side with a line of demarcation between the two
- Harlequin color change

Due to accumulation of sweat beneath eccrine sweat ducts that are obstructed by keratin
- Milia
If you are required to treat measles with medication, what would you use?
Vitamin A
What is the treatment for roseola infantum?
Observation
What would you suspect as the cause of delayed closure of the anterior fontanelle?
Down's syndrome, Ricket's, Achondroplasia, congenital hypothyroidism, elevated ICP
How would you expect weight to increase in the first 2 years of life?
Doubles by 4 months
Triples by 1 year
Quadruples by 2 years
When do children first exhibit stranger anxiety? When is gender identity typically formed?
Stranger anxiety at 6-9 months

Gender identity formed at 2-3 years
When can children begin to eat solid foods? When can children drink cow's milk?
Solid food at 4-6 months
Cows milk at 12 months
What interventions have been shown to reduce the incidence of SIDS?
Sleep on back
Pacifier use
Electric fan
Limit blankets/pillows and stuffed animals
No smoking in house
When can a child convert from a rear-facing car seat to a front-facing car seat?
After 20 pounds and 1-4 years
How many total doses of the DTaP vaccine should a 6-year old have received?
5
At what age is the meningococcal vaccine indicated?
After age 11
What is the most common malformation of the head and neck?
Unilateral cleft lip
What are the differences in presentation between a branchial cleft cyst and a thyroglossal duct cyst?
Branchial cleft cyst: Lateral neck

Thyroglossal duct cyst: Midline neck, moves with swallowing, most common congenital neck cyst, a/w ectopic thyroid tissue
What glycogen storage disease matches the following statement?
- Lactic acidosis, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia (gout)
- Diaphragm weakness -> respiratory failure
- Increased glycogen in liver, severe fasting hypoglycemia
Lactic acidosis, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia (gout)
- Type I Von Gierke's disease

Diaphragm weakness -> respiratory failure
- Type II Pompe's disease

Increased glycogen in liver, severe fasting hypoglycemia
- Von Gierke's disease
Which glycogen storage disease matches the following statement?
- Hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia (normal kidneys, lactate, and uric acid)
- Painful muscle cramps, myoglobinuria with strenuous exercise
- Severe hepatosplenomegaly, enlarged kidneys
Hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia (normal kidneys, lactate, and uric acid)
- Type III Cori's disease

Painful muscle cramps, myoglobinuria with strenuous exercise
- Type V McArdle's disease

Severe hepatosplenomegaly, enlarged kidneys
- Type I Von Gierke's disease
Which immunodeficiency matches the following description?
- Congenital heart defect + low calcium + recurrent infections
- Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis + chronic diarrhea + failure to thrive
- Thrombocytopenia + eczema + recurrent infections
- Poor smooth pursuit of eyes + elevated AFP after 8 months
- Partial albinism + recurrent URIs + neurological disorders
Congenital heart defect + low calcium + recurrent infections
- DiGeorge syndrome

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis + chronic diarrhea + failure to thrive
- SCID

Thrombocytopenia + eczema + recurrent infections
- Wiskott-Aldrich

Poor smooth pursuit of eyes + elevated AFP after 8 months
- Ataxia-telangiectasia

Partial albinism + recurrent URIs + neurological disorders
- Chediak-Higashi syndrome
Which genetic disorder matches the following description?
- Cleft lip/palate, life expectance < 1 year, polydactyly
- High-pitched cat-like cry
- Elfin facial features, cardiac defects
- Tall, thin male with gynecomastia and testicular atrophy
- Obesity and overeating
Cleft lip/palate, life expectance < 1 year, polydactyly
- Patau

High-pitched cat-like cry
- Cri-du-chat

Elfin facial features, cardiac defects
- William's syndrome

Tall, thin male with gynecomastia and testicular atrophy
- Klinefelter's syndrome

Obesity and overeating
- Prader-Willi
Which genetic disorder matches the following description?
- Micrognathia, life expectancy < 1 year, rocker-bottom feet
- Happy mood, inappropriate laughter, ataxic gait
- Large ears, mental retardation, macroorchidism
- Mental retardation, simian crease, GI and cardiac abnormalities
- Short stature, infertility, coarctation of the aorta
Micrognathia, life expectancy < 1 year, rocker-bottom feet
- Edward's syndrome

Happy mood, inappropriate laughter, ataxic gait
- Angelman's

Large ears, mental retardation, macroorchidism
- Fragile X

Mental retardation, simian crease, GI and cardiac abnormalities
- Down's syndrome

Short stature, infertility, coarctation of the aorta
- Turner's syndrome
When do infections typically begin in children with immune disorders?
Age > 3 months
Which glycogen storage disease matches the following statement?
- Lactic acidosis, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia (gout)
- Diaphragm weakness -> respiratory failure
- Increased glycogen in liver, severe fasting hypoglycemia
Lactic acidosis, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia (gout)
- Type I Von Gierke's disease

Diaphragm weakness -> respiratory failure
- Type II Pompe's disease
(adult form)

Increased glycogen in liver, severe fasting hypoglycemia
- Von Gierke's disease
Which glycogen storage disease matches the following statement?
- Hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia (normal kidneys, lactate, and uric acid)
- Painful muscle cramps, myoglobinuria with strenuous exercise
- Severe hepatosplenomegaly, enlarged kidneys
Hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia (normal kidneys, lactate, and uric acid)
- Type III Cori's disease

Painful muscle cramps, myoglobinuria with strenuous exercise
- Type V McArdle's disease

Severe hepatosplenomegaly, enlarged kidneys
- Type I Von Gierke's disease